Comitative case

Comitative case (abbreviated as COM) is the grammatical case that denotes accompaniment. In Nûrlâm it is marked with postposition “-sha” for both declension classes, which can be translated into English as preposition “together with” or just “with”. Comitative case changes the role of nouns and pronouns into adverbial or sometimes modifier. Typical applications include:

  • to mark companion of an action: “Sauron conquered Gondor (together) with Saruman” = “Sauron paikuzâ Gunduzg Sharkûsha1);
  • to mark two patients of an action: “Put Uglûk together with stinking Saruman-filth into the dung-pit” = “Gaith Uglûk Saruman-globsha pushdug bagronkishi” (see also orcish curse);
  • invitation to do an action together: “Go with me” = “ukh dasha”, “sing with us” = “lash daksha”;
  • to mark the object that is possessed by subject or another object: “orc with a knife” = “uruk kirmsha
  • to mark that object is filled with another objects of substance: “barrel with fish” = “kralt skabsha”, sometimes may be replaced with genitive case: “barrel of ale” = “kralt hîmbob”;
  • to describe absence of object together with negative particle “nar” added after “-sha”: “rain without end” = “miz naushanar”;
  • to describe the subject or object with another noun, that is (not) it's part: “Kolk kulâ zân unralshanar” = “Beaker is mug without handle”;
  • to describe that action is done with (or without) some emotion or quality: “Dog balsha” = “Kill with power”, “Kîb borz sha” = “Live peacefully”, “Mauk gormshanar” = “To fight without honor”;
  • to mark the object that is present/absent very closely to the subject: “Tabrus ash kirm îmsha” = “He has a knife with him(self)”;
  • to mark grammatical object that has grammatical subject in close proximity: “Kirm (kulâ) tasha” = “Knife is with him”;
  • with certain verbs, usually concerning speech with multiple objects (similar to second point): “he talks with orcs” = “tashugb uruksha”; but “Tagashnuz urukûr zamash …” (Dative case) = “he told (to) orcs that …”;
  • marks simultaneous action if time is expressed with noun or pronoun: “Trolls turn to stone with dawn” = “Olog-hai ragû gundishi ânsh-sha

Comitative vs. Instrumental case

Comitative case may be confused with Instrumental case, as both of them may be translated with English preposition “with”. The difference is that either word “together” or presence of companion or emotion is implied in Comitative case, while Instrumental case means “with use of”, “using”. Compare: “He speaks with fear in his voice” = “Tagashn ufursha mogtabishi” (COM) vs. “He speaks with flattery” = “Tagashn glizgirzi” (INS), “He talks with elves” = “Tashugb golugsha” (COM) vs. “He talks with his mouth” = “Tashugb pugtabirzi” (INS), “Kill the orc with knife”2) = “Dog urukum kirmsha” (COM) vs. “Kill the orc with (use of) knife”3) = “Dog urukum kirmirzi” (INS).

The verb “gûk-” (to fill) requires indirect object (if present) to be in Instrumental case: “Fill the barrels with fish” = “Gûk kralt skabirzi”. But “kralt skabsha” means that fish is already in the barrels.

name Saruman replaced with his orcish moniker “sharkû”
order to kill orc that have knife with him
order to kill orc using the knife
case_comitative.txt · Last modified: 2022/11/07 00:59 (external edit)