Adverbials and adjuncts

Adverbial is a word or phrase that modifies other modifier or predicate. It answers such questions like “how?”, “where?”, “when?”, “why?”.

Adjunct is an optional adverbial that may be excluded from sentence without losing it's sense and without violating grammar.

Adverbial phrase may be expressed by:

  • Adverb: “He fought vigorously” ⇒ “Tamaukuz hûrarz”;
  • Noun in one of locative cases: “He fought inside the building” ⇒ “Tamaukuz tumbambumor”;
  • Noun with adposition expressing time or place: “He fought in front of the gates” ⇒ “Tamaukuz hûmob ik”;
  • Noun in one of marginal case: instrumental, comitative or essive: “Dragon was killed by humans” ⇒ “Lûg kuzâ dogaga tarkirzi”;
  • Pro-adverb: “He won somehow” ⇒ “Tafaikuz mûdarz”;
  • Distributive numerals: “They were killed one by one” ⇒ “Tak kuz dogaga ashirzi”;
  • Participle with optional dependent words: “Orc was singing a song being executed by elves” ⇒ “Uruk lashuzâ ash laush dûmbag golugirzi”;
  • Dependent clause: “He was sitting on the throne when they came in” ⇒ “Taduzuz daulîmir amil takshiskuz”.

Word order

Typically adverbials follow the word they modify, however adverbials which modify adjective may precede it (specially in colloquial speech). If the verb has several adverbials, they may be split – some precede the verb, while others follow it, but otherwise adverbial's word order is:

Position1) 1 2 3 Example
preceeding/split Time (when?) Manner (how? why?) Place (where?) Ârshik tadoguz ash lûg ulsarz Ashûk Urunir = lit. “Yesterday he killed a dragon easily at the Lonely Mountain”
following Place (where?) Manner (how? why?) Time (when?) Tadoguz ash lûg Ashûk Urunir ulsarz ârshik = lit. “He killed a dragon at the Lonely Mountain easily yesterday”

When adverbial phrase consists of more than one word it is often shifted to the end of sequence of adverbials: “Tadoguz ash lûg ulsarz ârshik Ashûk Urunir” (lit. “He killed a dragon easily yesterday at the Lonely Mountain”).

relative to main word
syntax_adverbials.txt · Last modified: 2023/09/07 19:38 by