The sentence, clause or verb are called impersonal when the subject or agent of action is absent. Indefinite pronoun and omitted “you” in imperatives are not considered as absent subject. In English subject of such expressions must be specified by dummy pronoun “it” (or less often “one”: “One does not simply walk into Mordor”), but in Nûrlâm it is not necessary, or even ungrammatical. Impersonal sentences may have objects or patients. Typical situations when impersonal clauses are used include:
The action of impersonal construction is usually expressed by:
Impersonal clauses often have a shade of passivity and often used instead of passive voice when agent of action is not specified: “He was blown away”, “I was told that …” (not impersonal in English but impersonal in Nûrlâm). Sometimes it vice versa, impersonal clauses of English like “it rains” may be translated in Black Speech with personal constructions “rain goes/falls/pours” (“miz ukhâ/lûmpâ/sûrbâ”), “there is rain” (“Miz (kulâ) zîgin”) which usually occurs when corresponding verbs are missing in dictionary. Another example of translating of English impersonal sentence into personal in Nûrlâm are phrases like “It's not he who …”, which are translated into something like “Not-he (did something)”.
English expressions “There is/are/was/were/will …” do not count as impersonal constructions in Nûrlâm. See Existential clause article for further information.
You can notice that famous “Uglúk u bagronk...” phrase is also impersonal, moreover it has no verb too! “Uglúk” here is direct object and “u bagronk” is indirect object. However with less strict approach one may say that preposition “u” took verbal meaning “go to” (and that is probably why it was used standalone), then “Uglúk” is subject.
Patient of impersonal verb is often expressed by noun in Dative case, like in German “Mir ist kalt” (literally “to me it's cold”) instead of “Ich bin kalt” (“I'm cold”). Similar expressions are used in Russian (but usually with 3rd person plural or 3rd person neuter singular). This is especially true for sentences describing state of being and verbs requiring object in dative case.
The grammatical case of object of impersonal sentences depends on context. Genitive case is used with expressions of absence (started with “no”). Dative case is used with verbs that usually require this case (“give”, “tell”, etc.) or with verbs expressing state (may be omitted) or transformation and following adverbial phrases.