Essive case

Essive case (abbreviated as ESS) is the grammatical case used to describe state of noun or pronoun. It is marked with clitic postposition “-si” for both declension classes. Its most common function in Nûrlâm is to make comparisons, while in other languages it has much broader use (like marking time-related nouns in Finnish, or to express antipassive in dead Hurrian language). So Essive case of Nûrlâm is closer to Equative, Associative, Similative (Similaris), Comparative, Identical cases of other languages, and these terms may be used to describe it. Essive case transforms nouns and pronouns from subject or object into adjectival or adverbial phrase. It may also be a part of complex predicate (predicative). Typical applications of Essive case in Nûrlâm include:

  • To compare similarity:
    • To make description of subject or object by comparing it with noun or pronoun. It is similar to adding English clitic particle “-like”: “This animal is wolf-like” = “Za bork kulâ hargsi”, “I'm tired of this pig-like person” = “Dakul kûbraga shrab bûbsi”;
    • To compare adjective with noun (e.g. “slick as fish”), paired with preposition “oth” (as, like, similar to): “tât skabsi”;
    • To express close similarity or equality of two objects, using additional preposition-like adjective “zash” (same): “This ring is the same as one that I gave you a year ago” = “Za nazg kulâ zash nazgumsi zamash dathrâkuzam ash ûzhraug krut”1);
    • To compare two objects using some adjective: “He is as tall as a giant” = “Takul târ nûrsi2);
    • To compare some quality of an action: “He is working like an ox” = “Tabul gagsi” = “He works as hard as an ox”, “Run like rabbit” = “Irz tapsi” = “Run as fast as rabbit”. Similar to next example but expression is figurative.
    • To make adjectival phrase similar to English adjectives ending with “-ly” or “-ish” with same meaning as “-like”, “behaving like”: “snagasi” = “slavish”, “servile” (literally “slave-like”).
  • To express title or appointments, similar to previous and next examples: “He works as a doctor” = “Tabul shartalsi”, “As a ruler of Mordor I order you to conquer Gondor” = “Durbalsi Uzgbûrzob dakazhaf paikat Gunduzg”3).
  • To express state (temporal or stable), connected to time, age or quality: “I knew him as a child” = “Daîstuzan khindsi” = “I knew him when he was child”, “As your friend I advice you not to go there” = “Shauksi fib dathrâham narukhat zîginu”4).
lit. “This ring is the same as the ring that I gave you one year back”
consonants merged at joint of “nûrs” + “si”
normally “as a ruler of Mordor” should be placed at the end of the sentence, but we make emphasis on this title rather than on “I”
shauk-si fi-b da-thrâh-am nar-ukh-at zîg-in-u
friend=ESS you=GEN 1SG=advice-2SG.OBJ NEG-go-GERV that-place=ALL
lit. “As a friend of you I advice you not to go to that place (thither)”
case_essive.txt · Last modified: 2022/11/07 00:59 (external edit)