Descriptive words: Adverbs

Adverbs are the words that modify verbs (hence the name) and other descriptive words. Adverbs usually express location (place, space), time and frequency, manner. There are not many adverbs in Nûrlâm's dictionary:

New words

  • gûth (almost, nearly) – manner
  • mag (too [much]) – manner
  • sha (together) – manner
  • sharz (very) – manner
  • tîr (straight) – direction

Making adverbs from adjectives

Very few adverbs have the same form as adjectives (or other word classes):

New words

  • lad (late) < adj. “late” – time
  • raih (seldom, rarely) < adj. “rare” – time, frequency
  • thil (often, frequently) < adj. “frequent” – time, frequency
  • tug (only, just) < adj. “single, only” – frequency, manner
  • zârsh (today) < noun – time

In majority of cases you need to add suffix -arz after the adjective (or sometimes other part of speech) to convert it to adverb. If the adjective already has suffix -ûrz, it should be replaced with -arz.

New words

  • aktûrz (precise) ⇒ aktarz (precisely) – manner
  • durt (sure) ⇒ durtarz (surely, of course) – manner
  • hîs (fast, quick) ⇒ hîsarz (quickly, fast) – manner
  • kîb (to live) ⇒ kîbarz (alive) – manner
  • kog (true, real) ⇒ kogarz (truly, really, actually, indeed) – manner

Word order

The following rules are applied to position of adverbs in sentence:

  1. if adverb modifies the verb, it should be placed after the verb and it's object: the fire quickly burns the forestghâshum ghâshâ taum hîsarz;
  2. if adverb modifies the adjective that precedes the noun, then adverb is placed before the adjective: very old dirtsharz dug;
  3. if adverb modifies the adjective that is placed after the noun, then adverb is placed after the adjective: really hot waternîn gashûrz kogarz;
  4. if adjective has a modifying adverb, it cannot join the noun as a clitic: almost black bloodghor mor gûth / gûth mor ghor (not “ghormor gûth”);

Word order of adverbs will be discussed again in the future lessons, when you'll learn how to make more complex sentences.

Exercise 1

Translate from English into Nûrlâm:

  1. bring the slaves alive
  2. come together
  3. demons rarely fly
  4. elves eat only fruits and bread
  5. the man comes precisely
  6. the slayer often kills
  7. too hot dragon
  8. these eyes see a very scary orc
  9. warriors are resting today
  10. wraiths surely rule this tower

show answers

show answers

  1. thrak za snaga kîbarz
  2. skât sha
  3. rog skoirû raih
  4. golug throkhû gau agh mazg tug
  5. tarkum skâtâ aktarz
  6. dogum dogâ thil
  7. mag gashûrz lûg / lûg gashûrz mag
  8. za hont kinû ash sharz uf uruk / za hont kinû ash uruk uf sharz
  9. mau kâtû zârsh / mauh kâtû zârsh
  10. gûl durbû za lug durtarz

Exercise 2

Translate from Nûrlâm:

  1. ash olog tûrz sharz
  2. gazatum lorâ zârsh
  3. golug throkhû âps raih
  4. gûth udug mink mauh
  5. kogarz bhog saub
  6. tark gimbû hlum hîsarz
  7. ukh tîr
  8. urukum maukû sha
  9. za shra skâtâ mag lad
  10. za snaga kâtâ mag

show answers

show answers

  1. a very fat troll
  2. the dwarf sleeps today
  3. elves rarely eat meat
  4. almost seven thousand warriors / nearly seven thousand warriors / almost 7000 warriors / nearly 7000 warriors
  5. really good juice
  6. humans quickly bring the clothes
  7. go straight
  8. orcs fight together
  9. this person comes too late
  10. this slave rests too much

Exercise 3

Make new adverbs from adjectives you've learnt before:

  1. bad (fik) ⇒ badly
  2. good (bhog) ⇒ well
  3. heavy (bûrd) ⇒ heavily
  4. long (rodh) ⇒ [for a] long
  5. strong (bolg) ⇒ strongly

show answers

show answers

  1. fikarz
  2. bhogarz
  3. bûrdarz
  4. rodharz
  5. bolgarz

See also

lessons/adverbs_1.txt · Last modified: 2024/04/13 20:17 by morgoth