Tolkien's word list

The table below contains all stems and suffixes of Black Speech (CBS) and Orcish dialects (DBS, AO) found in J.R.R. Tolkien's works. It is sorted in alphabetical order by Black Speech roots. Main sources are:

Articles about sources also provide additional etymology information. Some of stems have unknown meaning but reserved for future extrapolation. Undoubtful words are marked bold (not all attested Black Speech roots have clear meaning). While many names of orcs and other evil creatures usually considered Sindarin, other Elvish or Mannish languages, their form is not exactly the same. In example “Balrog” should be “Baulraug” in standard Sindarin while “bal” and “rog” are treated as special forms for compound words. But in Nûrlâm dialect it's supposed that such words were corrupted by orcs thus becoming Debased Black Speech from which they return back to Elvish tongues. Another example to prove this theory is Classical Black Speech word “Nazgûl” containing Sindarin root “gûl” (necromancy or dark magic as in Dol Guldur and Minas Morgûl) though with different but related translation (“wraith”).

Word Language Source Meaning
agh CBS LOTR (RI) and
ash CBS LOTR (RI) one
-at CBS LOTR (RI) (infinitive/participle/gerund suffix)
Azog DBS TH (PN) ?
bag DBS LOTR (OC & PN) 1) torture (PE)
2) dung (VT)
3) cess (PM)
bal CBS1) many (divine) power, might
bol AO HOME 3 (PN) torment (LR), cruel
Bolg DBS TH (PN) stong?
(either shortened form of name Bol-dog or strong2))
bûb3) DBS LOTR (OC) 1) dung, muck (PE)
2) pig (VT)
bûb-hosh4) DBS LOTR (OC) great (PM)
bug5) DBS LOTR (PN) ?
bûrz6) DBS LOTR (PN) dark
burzum CBS LOTR (RI) the darkness
dog AO HOME 3 (PN) slayer (LR), warrior
duf DBS LOTR (PN) ?
gloomy (NL)
dug DBS LOTR (OC) filth (NL)
durb- CBS LOTR (RI) rule, constrain, force, dominate
dush DBS WJ, WR, SD (PN) (dark) sorcery (AA)
gaz DBS WR (PN) ?
gash DBS LOTR (PN) fire
Ghash DBS SD (PN) fire
ghâsh DBS, CBS? LOTR fire
gimb- CBS LOTR (RI) find, seek out, discover
glob DBS LOTR (OC) 1) filth (PE, VT),
2) foul (PE),
3) fool (PM)
goi DBS WJ, WR, SD (PN) city, town with citadel or central watch tower (AA)
gol DBS HOME 3 (PN) ?
golug AO UT Noldo elf
gor AO, DBS7) LOTR and HOME 3 (PN) violence, impetus, haste, vigor (LR)
gorb8) DBS LOTR (PN) choose (EH)
gorg9) AO HOME 3 (PN) butcher
goth [1] CBS10) LOTR, WR, Silm. (PN) 1) war, strife, warrior (BOLT II, Gnomish)
2) dread, terror (LR)
3) enemy (Sindarin)
goth [2] AO LR (The List of Names) lord, master < Sindarin name “Morgoth”
grat11) DBS LOTR (PN) ?
grish DBS LOTR (PN) ?
cut (NL)
gûl CBS many, PN wraith
-hai AO, CBS, DBS many folk, people
horn DBS LOTR (PN) ?
hosh DBS OC 1) heap (PE)
2) guts (VT)
hûr12) DBS LOTR (PN) ?
vigourous, fiery (NL)
ishi CBS LOTR (RI) 1) in, inside
2) within (NL, SV)
3) into, inwards (NL)
kha(m) DBS13) UT (PN) ?
krimp- CBS LOTR (RI) bind, tie
DBS LOTR (PN) old?
lag DBS LOTR (PN) ?
sword (NL)
lug14) [1] AO15) BOLT (PN) snake
lug [2] DBS LOTR (PN) tower, fortress, lock-up, prison
lûk16) 17) DBS LOTR (PN) ?
lûn DBS WR (PN) ?
1) pale
2) blue
mau18) DBS LOTR (PN) ?
warrior (LOS, NL)
mog [1] CBS19) LOTR, WR, Silm. (PN) 1) hate, hateful, hatred (BOLT II, Gnomish)
2) oppressor, tyrant (LR)
mog [2] AO LR (The List of Names) voice
mor AO LR (The List of Names) black, dark < Sindarin name “Morgoth”
mûl DBS20) UT (PN) ?
way (LOS)
muz21) DBS LOTR (PN) ?
nâkh22) DBS LOTR (PN) ?
nazg CBS LOTR (RI) (finger-ring)
Nûzu DBS WR (PN) ?
oghor AO UT Drúedain
olog CBS LOTR troll
oth AO BOLT, UT (PN) ?
push DBS LOTR (OC) excrement (LOS), dung (NL)
pushd- DBS LOTR (OC) stink (AA)
rad23) DBS LOTR (PN) ?
radb24) DBS LOTR (PN) ?
rat25) DBS LOTR (PN) ?
rod AO BOLT, UT (PN) ?
mountain (NL)
rog CBS26) many demon
ronk DBS LOTR (OC) 1) chamber (PE)
2) pit (VT)
3) pool (PM)
sha DBS LOTR (OC) 1) with (PE, VT)
2) (not translatable interjection) (PM)
shag27) DBS LOTR (PN) ?
shagr-28) DBS LOTR (PN) ?
shar29) DBS LOTR (PN) man?
shark30) DBS LOTR (PN) man?
skai DBS LOTR (OC) (not translatable interjection)
snaga DBS LOTR (PN) servant, slave, an orc of lesser breeds
tark DBS LOTR men of Númenór
thak DBS LOTR (PN) ?
face (LOS)
thrak- CBS LOTR (RI) bring (by force), hale, drag
u DBS LOTR (OC) to
uf DBS LOTR (PN) ?
horrible, hideous (NL)
scary (LOS)
-ug DBS LOTR (OC) English Participle I suffix (-ing) (AA)
ug31) DBS LOTR (PN) ?
ugl32) DBS LOTR (PN) ?
-ûk CBS LOTR (RI) all, completely, totally, fully
-ul CBS LOTR (RI) them
-um CBS LOTR (RI) (particularizing suffix or 'article'), (abstract noun suffix), -ness,
uruk CBS LOTR orc
yag33) DBS SD, WR (PN) ?
zag DBS WR (PN) ?

The Lord of The Rings, The Two Towers, Book 4, Chapter X “The Choices of Master Samwise” contains also untranslated exclamations “nar” and “garn”, which become used in Neo-Black Speech with meanings “No” and “Come on!” respectively.

1) , 10) , 19)
more like Sindarin
The History of Hobbit
3) , 4) , 6) , 12) , 17) , 22)
spelling normalized
5) , 23) , 24)
Radbug may be split as radb- + -ug or rad + bug
so possibly a CBS word too
Gorbag may be split as gor- + -bag or gorb- + -ag
Gorgol may be split as gor- + -gol or gorg- + -ol
11) , 25) , 27) , 28)
Shagrat may be split as shagr- + -at or sha + grat or shag + rat
13) , 20)
probably some mannish language
once spelled also as Lûg
more like Gnomish word
16) , 31) , 32)
Uglûk may be split as ugl- + -ûk or ug + lûk
may be also mauh
may be also muzg
probably Sindarin
29) , 30)
Sharkû may be split as shar + or shark + or shara +
Yagûl may be split as ya + gûl or yag + gûl
tolkien_word_list.txt · Last modified: 2022/11/07 00:59 (external edit)