Swadesh lists for Nûrlâm

Swadesh list is the short set of words used for historical-comparative linguistics and lexicostatistics. It consists of wide-spread, universal words available in the most languages of the world. However as it's seen on Nûrlâm dialect, Black Speech is lacking categories of number and animacy but with words describing several humanoid species this “universality” is not always true. See Wikipedia for more information on this subject. Also, please notice, that Swadesh lists have nothing to do with frequency of words' appearance in real texts or speech.

Examples for various aspects of Nûrlâm at these wiki pages will try to restrict their lexicon to this list and some additional words mentioned in Tolkien's sources.

Swadesh 207 words list

Words appeared in final 100 words list (see below) are marked bold. Authentic Nûrlâm words invented specially for this dialect or for BlackSpeech.ru web-site are marked with asterisk (*) and borrowed from other dialects (except Shadowlandian) with italics.

English Nûrlâm Part of
Etymology 1) Comments Categories
1 I da pron HORN “da”;
compare with Urartian ending “-də” of intransitive verb in 1st person singular
Please refer to pronouns page for correct usage Personal pronouns, clitic, people
2 you (sing.); thou fi* pron Gnomish singular “fi” + Hurrian standalone singular “fe” Please refer to pronouns page for correct usage Personal pronouns, clitic, people
3 he ta pron EL “tak” (they), all major dialects from Etym. “TA” (that), Qenya “ta” (that, it), replaced in later Quenya means any 3rd person singular (he, she, it);
please refer to pronouns page for correct usage
Personal pronouns, clitic, people
4 we dak pron HORN “dak”, in analogy with 3rd person “ta” – “tak” please refer to pronouns page for correct usage Personal pronouns, clitic, people
5 you (pl.); ye gi* pron Gnomish “gwe” (pl.), DS “ki” < Adûnaic “ki” & Qenya “ke” (sing.), DS “gi” (your) please refer to pronouns page for correct usage Personal pronouns, clitic, people
6 they tak pron EL please refer to pronouns page for correct usage Personal pronouns, clitic, people
7 this za pron EL, all major dialects means also “these” in Nûrlâm; often used as definite article “the” Demonstrative pronouns, Pro-forms
8 that zîg* pron LOS < HORN < EL “za” (this) + NL “tîg” (there) means also “those” in Nûrlâm Demonstrative pronouns, Pro-forms
9 here 1) zin* pro “za” (this, see #7) + “in” < Quenya “en” (there, look!) < Etym. “EN-” (over there, yonder) Pro-forms, directions
2) pot adv SV < “pôt-” (to come) Pro-forms, directions, colloquial
10 there 1) zîgin* pro “zîg” (that, see #8) + “in” (see #9) Pro-forms, directions
2) tîg* adv SV, all major dialects, “atîg” (over there) Pro-forms, directions, colloquial
English Nûrlâm Part of
Etymology Comments Categories
11 who 1) mai* pron BS “hai” (people, folk, race) + interrogative prefix “m-” interrogative (question) Relative & Interrogative pronouns, Pro-forms, people
2) amai* relative
12 what 1) mash pron LOS interrogative (question) Relative & Interrogative pronouns, Pro-forms
2) amash relative
13 where 1) min* pron see “here” (#9) interrogative (question) Pro-forms, directions
2) amin* relative
14 when 1) mil* pron SV “il” (time) + interrogative prefix “m-” interrogative (question) Pro-forms, temporal
2) amil* relative
15 how 1) marz* pron interrogative prefix “m-” + adverb suffix “-arz” interrogative (question) Pro-forms
2) amarz* relative
16 not nar clitic AN, all major dialects used as prefix or suffix like “non-”, “dis-”, “un-”, “-n't” Pro-forms, quantity, auxiliary
17 all ûk pron TK, RI used as suffix/clitic pronoun; also clitic adverb with literal meaning “fully, completely” used to express perfect(ive) aspects of verb Pro-forms, quantity, people
18 many mak adj, pron SV also means “lots”, “much”; as quantifier used with noun in Genitive; also means indefinite pronoun Pro-forms, quantity
19 some mûd adj, pron HG < LOS “mupsh” < MB used both as quantifier (e.g. some milk) and indefinite pronoun (e.g. some say) Pro-forms, quantity
20 few
21 other isk* pron merging Quenya “exë” + LOS “izg” (I) Pro-forms, people
English Nûrlâm Part of
Etymology Comments Categories
22 one ash # TK, RI often used as indefinite article (a, an); as Nûrlâm lacks grammar category of number, it denotes singular, because nouns are plural by default quantity, people, auxiliary
23 two krul # LOS quantity
24 three krig* # Hurrian “kig-”; EL “gakh”, all major dialects; changed to avoid confusion with AN “gâkh-” (may, let); compare with EH “krilg” quantity
25 four hant* # merging ON “jhet” with Etym. “KÁNAT” quantity
26 five krâk # LL quantity
27 big 1) dau* adj Sindarin “daer” (great, large); compare with LOS “dur” (big, large) with same Etymology, changed to avoid ambiguity with SV (“head”) and DS (“soon”) great, large measure
2) pol* Quenya “polda” (big), “poldor” (physical strength, might) big, large, physically strong (all about person) measure, quality
28 long rodh adj HORN measure, time
29 wide 1) plan* adj Quenya “palan”, “palda” < Etym. “PAL”, as in “Palantir” measure
2) yan* Quenya “yána”, Sindarin “iaun” (wide, vast, huge) wide, vast, roomy, extensive
30 thick hath adj HORN (means also “heavy”), marked as borrowed from SV but without original form, and it's absent in Svartiska dictionaries measure
31 heavy bûrd* adj merging LOS, SV, HG “bur” (weight), “burûrz” (heavy) < MB with LP “brauda” < Adûnaic “burôda”, “buruda” measure
32 small; little 1) sta adj SV, HORN “sta” (small, little, low, short, puny, light-weight); compare with Etym. “STINT” (short) measure, clitic
2) mik SV (small, little); compare with DS “mig” sometimes used as prefix
33 short sta adj see #32 measure
34 narrow yat* adj Quenya “yatta” (narrow neck) measure
35 thin boh adj HORN (slim, thin, slight, slender); marked as borrowed from SV (as LOS “bukol”) but was not found in Svartiska dictionary measure
English Nûrlâm Part of
Etymology Comments Categories
36 woman; female -niz* suffix Quenya “nís” (noun “woman”) feminizer suffix like “-ess”, “she-” people
37 man; male nor* n Etym. “NDER”, “DER male person of any race people
38 person; man shra n LOS, SV < EL “shara” (human) < TK “sharkû” (old man) person of any race and gender, also “people” people
39 child 1) dâg n LOS, compare with SV “dagalush” (small imp, goblin) and “dâgalûr” (demon) about age people
2) khind* NL < Adûnaic “-hin” (child, patronymic suffix) refers both to age and degree of kinship
40 wife firniz* n see #41 + feminizer suffix (see #36) people
41 husband fir* n Quenya “veru” (married pair) also means “spouse”, “consort”, “mate” (only biological meaning) people
42 mother krankniz* n see #43 + feminizer suffix (see #36) people
43 father krank n LOS in Nûrlâm means more like “parent”, “ancestor” people
English Nûrlâm Part of
Etymology Comments Categories
44 animal; beast 1) alai n LOS < SV “alaj” (animal, beast) in Nûrlâm more like any living but non-intelligent creature (but not trees) animals
2) bork SV (animal) “animal”, usually refers to mammals and reptiles
45 fish skab* n Etym. “SKAL2 animals, water, food
46 bird aig* n Gnomish “aigli”, Sindarin “aew” < Etym. “AIWÊ” animals, food
47 dog hunk* n Etym. “KHUG”, “KHUGAN”, probably Indo-European origin (Germanic “hund”, Latin “canis”); compare with Sindarin “hû”, PN Silm. “Huan”; compare with HORN “huk”, SV “hundur”, ON “kon” also “hound” animals, curses
48 louse abh* n Hurrian “aphe” may refer any skin or hair parasite (also “flea”, “crum”, “mite”, “tick”, “acarid” etc.) animals, curses
49 snake lûg* n Etym. “LOK”, Gnomish “Lug”, probably AO bigger snake, dragon animals, roleplay
50 worm zom* n SV “dhomaj” animals, curses
51 tree orn* n Quenya “ornë” (isolated tree) plants
52 forest tau n LOS < Sindarin “taw”, “taur” also “woods” plants, terrain, materials
53 stick ghru n LOS (stick, pole, penis, club) < SV “ghrû” (erected penis) also euphemism for “penis” plants, tools, materials, anatomy, curses, colloquial
54 fruit gau* n Quenya “yávë” may refer to vegetables also plants, food
55 seed (botanics) 1) blûz* n Gnomish “bloss” (wheat) + SV “blûg” (seed, grain), most major dialects, also “blûg-” (grind, mill) < Albanian “bluaj” (to grind, mill) also “grain” (incl. of sand) plants, food, materials
2) sru LOS < MB < SV, also SV “srû” (fruit) also “grain”, “barley”, “corn”, “wheat” plants, food
56 leaf (botanics) 1) pâth n ZB < Valarin “Ibrîniðilpathânezel” (Telperion, “Silver-flower leaf-green”); suitable as merging of LOS (see [2]), SV “gathl” and HORN “pa” < Sumerian only literal meaning plants
2) gâth LOS < MB (also “page”, “sheet”), SV “gathl” (leaf, paper, sheet) also “page” (of book), “sheet” (of paper) plants, materials
57 root (botanics) bugh n LOS (root, origin) < MB, SV “bughn” (root, origin, source, beginning) more literal meaning then in other dialects plants, food
58 bark (of tree) parb* n Quenya “parma” plants, materials
59 flower lûth* n NL < Sindarin “loth”, Gnomish “lôs” also “bloom” plants
60 grass barth* n merging SV, all major dialects “bar” (also means “hay” in SV) with Sindarin “parth” (field, sward, enclosed grassland) plants, terrain
English Nûrlâm Part of
Etymology Comments Categories
61 rope krimp n LOS < TK, RI “krimpat” (to bind, tie); see also “tie” (#137) Tools
62 skin daft* n melting Gnomish “daf”, “dôf”, “dauth” also of fruits and vegetables (“peel”, “rind”) anatomy, animals, plants, food
63 meat; flesh 1) hrau* n Quenya “hroa” (body, flesh, physical form), Sindarin “rhaw” (flesh) more like “flesh” anatomy, animals, materials
2) âps LOS Quenya “apsa” (cooked food, meat), Etym. “AP” more like meal (for cooking) anatomy, animals, food
64 blood ghor* n Sindarin “iûr”, “iâr” < Etym. “YAR”; Sindarin “agar”; Primitive Elvish “okhor” anatomy, physiology, materials
shirk* DS “sherku”, “shirku” < Quenya “sercë”, Sindarin “sereg”
65 bone takh* n SV “tach” (bone)
? Etym. “TELEK” (stalk, stem, leg), compare with Sindarin “talch” (stem)
may refer to leg (#81) anatomy, materials
66 fat; grease tôm* n LOS “tûm” (fat, grease, oil) < MB, SV “tû” (fatty, fleshy, flabby); compare with Sindarin “tûg” (fat, thick) < TIW; changed to avoid cognates may refer to “oil” as in LOS anatomy, materials, food
67 egg fird* n merging LOS “fîl” (bird), Hurrian “erade” (bird), Gnomish “uitha” (to lay eggs) with NL “fir-” (to mate) see #67, #41 animals, anatomy, food
68 horn (e.g. of bull) ras n LOS < Quenya “rasco”, “rassë” < Etym. “RAS” animals, anatomy, materials
69 tail (of animal) baut* n merging Qenya “pint” with LOS “baush” < SV “baushat” < Albanian “pisht” animals, anatomy
70 feather pozg* n NL < Noldorin “pesseg” (pillow), Quenya “quessë” (feather) < Etym. “KWES” (feather) also “plume” animals, anatomy, materials, armor
English Nûrlâm Part of
Etymology Comments Categories
71 hair (of head) zud* n EH “azud” < Valarin “(a)šata” in Nûrlâm refers to all hairs as a whole anatomy
72 head (anatomy) kaz* n Quenya “cas” anatomy
73 ear khlau* n merging LOS “khlât” < Quenya “hlar” (hear) with Sindarin “law” (a pair of ears) < Etym. “LAS”[2]; changed to escape ambiguity with verb see also “hear” (#102) anatomy
74 eye hont n LOS < Quenya “hen(d)” compare with “see” (#101) anatomy
75 nose pund n merging Hurrian “punhi” with Qenya “penta” with Noldorin “bunn” < Etym. “(M)BUD” anatomy
76 mouth pug* n NL < LOS, HORN “pu” < Quenya “pé” (lip, mouth) also “lips” anatomy
77 tooth 1) glok n LOS not fang or tusk anatomy
2) kug n HORN
3) nogh n DS (Moria) < DS (PO) “nakṛ” < Etym. “NAK” (to bite)
78 tongue lâm n LOS < Quenya “lambë” also “language” anatomy
79 claw; (finger)nail glamb* n NL < Gnomish “clamp” (grasp, claw), Noldorin “gamp” (hook, claw) < Etym. “GAP” (hook) anatomy
80 foot thul n DS (Isengard) “tʰul” < Quenya “tál”, Sindarin “tâl” also a unit of measure Anatomy, Measure
English Nûrlâm Part of
Etymology Comments Categories
81 leg pakh* n merging Middle-Quenya “pelko” with Gnomish “bachta” anatomy
82 knee okh n SV (BA) < Quenya “occa” anatomy
83 hand 1) bazg n SV (arm, hand) also “arm” anatomy
2) nalg SV (hand) also “palm”
84 wing skoir n LOS < “skoi-” (to fly) (see #120) not of building anatomy, animals
85 belly (abdomen) thûn* n SV “thlûn”, most major dialects,
changed according to dialect rules
also “stomach” anatomy
86 guts 1) hosh n TK, OC “búb-hosh” in other translation “heap” anatomy
2) khurg n DS guts, bowels anatomy
87 neck mâs* n NL < LOS “mâsl” < MB also of bottle, also “throat” anatomy
88 back (of body) krûm* n NL < LOS “krum”,
changed according to dialect rules
89 breast nirn* n Hurrian “neḫerni” also “chest” (of body) anatomy
90 heart tish* n NL < Hurrian “tiša”, “tiža”, “tižna”, “tižni” physical heart (not center, middle) anatomy
91 liver slârg* n merging LOS “slai-” (to live), “sâr” (bitter) and “snâg” (soft, smooth) anatomy
English Nûrlâm Part of
Etymology Comments Categories
92 drink 1) akr- v LOS food, physiology, water
2) shog- v DS < Eldarin “suk-”, “sok-” < Etym. “SUK”; compare with English “suck”, Russian “sok” (juice), Latin “sugere” (to suck), “succus” (juice); probably common Indo-European word of sound-imitating origin; also “soup”, “sip” and many others
93 eat throkh- v SV < LL “throqu” to eat, devour, swallow food, physiology
94 bite nâkh-* v Etym. NAK, Sindarin “nag” food, animals
95 suck zug-* v LOS “zug” (lip) < MB < SV “zugl” (border); LOS, SV, MB “zu-” (to suck); changed according to dialect's rules food, physiology, water
96 spit pûth-* v melting SV “pûshatîg-” with Quenya “piuta-” physiology, water, sound
97 vomit hih-* v Noldorin “hich” physiology, food
98 blow thûth- v Quenya “súta”, “susta”, “surya”, Gnomish “sûtha” < Etym. “THÛ”; see also “sûm” (to breathe, #99) also about wind physiology, weather
99 breathe sûm-* v LOS “sû-” (v), “sûm” (n); changed according to Nûrlâm rules; see also “thûth” (to blow, #98) physiology
100 laugh lal-* v Quenya “lala-” speech, sound
101 see 1) kin- v DS < Quenya “cen”, same Etymology as “hend” above also “behold” senses
2) hon- v LOS (look, see, watch) < Quenya “hend” (eye) look, see, watch (compare with “eye”, #74)
102 hear 1) khlâr- v LOS < Quenya “hlar-” compare with #73 (ear) senses
2) koz- LOS < HORN
103 know îst- v LOS < Quenya “ista” as in Quenya “Istari” (wizards) mind
gol-* v TK AO “golug” (Noldor elf) < “ÑGOLOD” (one of the wise folk, Gnome) < “ÑGOL” (wise); compare with CBS & Sindarin “gûl” means deeper, secret knowledge, wisdom
104 think ûs- v LOS < Quenya “ósanwë” (telepathy) mind
105 smell skûm- v LOS feel odor, use the nose; not “be smelly” senses
106 fear furg-* v Quenya “þorya” + LOS “ufur-” < “uf-” (frighten) < TK PN “Ufthak” fear of smth., not frighten smb. mind, senses, modal, evil
107 sleep lor-* v Quenya “olor” (dream) (n) < Etym. “LOS-” not dream physiology
108 live kîb-* v DS (BS) “kîbum” (n), probably from Quenya “cuivië” < Etym. “KUY” (come to life, awake) (see also “kul-”, to be) physiology
109 die 1) mat- v EL, all major dialects more about natural death (like in bed, of aging, etc.) physiology, evil
2) ghur- DS (Moria) < DS (PO) “gura-”, “guru-” < Sindarin “guru” < Etym. “ÑGUR”
110 kill dog-* v TK PN “Boldog” (torment-slayer) < Etym. “NDAK” slay evil
English Nûrlâm Part of
Etymology Comments Categories
111 fight 1) mauk- v LOS, probably from Qenya “mahtar” (warrior) < Etym. “MAK” literally, with weapons or fists warfare, armor, hands, evil
2) tad- v HORN < MERP “bartas” (brawl) to face, fight (one on one), battle with, struggle, deal with, meet at battlefield warfare, evil
112 hunt farb-* v SV “vorb-” (to hunt, pursuit), “várbatár” (hunter) + Sindarin “farad” (hunter), “faras” (hunt) animals, evil
113 hit grush- v LOS, SV, MERP; probably from English “crush” hit (in face, jaw); punch; strike hands, rpg, sound
114 cut 1) grish-* v TK PN “Grishnákh”, probably from Sindarin “criss” < Etym. “KIRIS” cut, cleave, slash armor, hands, technology, evil
2) ak- v LOS < Quenya “ecet” (short stabbing sword) eg. with knife, also “to stab” (#116) armor, hands, evil
115 split sorgh- v all major dialects < SV split, divide, cleave technology, quantity
116 stab ak- v LOS < Quenya “ecet” (short stabbing sword) also “to cut” (#114) armor, hand, evil
117 scratch shrip-* v Etym. “SRIP” hands
118 dig rong- v HORN < TK OC “bagronk” building
119 swim lunt-* v LOS “lunt” (boat) (n) < Quenya “luntë” to swim, sail, row water, motion, animals
120 fly skoir-* v LOS “skoi-”, also noun; LOS “skoir” (wing, #84); changed according to dialect's rules literally “flap with wings” motion, animals, technology
English Nûrlâm Part of
Etymology Comments Categories
121 walk ukh- v LOS go, walk (unfinished or continuous action) motion
122 come skât- v LOS finished action; in Nûrlâm also “arrive” motion
123 lie (on side, in bed); recline kât- v LOS (lie down) < Quenya “caita” Verbs
124 sit duz- v LOS < HORN Verbs
125 stand (upright, be erected) bin-* v Etym. “MINI” (stand alone) Verbs
126 turn kurg-* v merging Quenya “quer” (to turn) with LOS “rag-” < SV and with Quenya “corna” (round) < Etym. “KOR”; similarity with Russian “krug” is accidental compare with “round” (#190) motion, directions, technology
127 fall 1) lûmp- v LOS also morally motion, mind, quality, evil
2) zad- v DS; coincidentally related to MERP “zaduk-”, ZA “zâdûk-” (to destroy) < probably SV “sadáuk” (attack, assault) also about buildings and war (e.g. “garrison has fallen”, “city has fallen”) motion, warfare
128 give throg-* v NL < merging TK, RI “thrakat” (to bring) with Qenya “toqo-” (to yield, give, bring forth, bear) (mostly about childbirth and harvest) to give, grant, yield, tribute, make gift, bestow, endow, indue hands, ownership
129 hold 1) fîth- v LOS incl. military hands, ownership, warfare
2) unr- LOS, HORN only literally hands, ownership
130 squeeze sang-* v Quenya “sanga” (crowd, press, throng)(n), “sangië” (necessity, pressure, tribulation) press, weigh down, squeeze technology, hands
English Nûrlâm Part of
Etymology Comments Categories
131 rub krûf- v LOS < SV, MB “krûv-” (to rub, polish, file) hands, technology
132 wash yol-* v Sindarin “iôl” clean with water water, hands, food
133 wipe thig-* v LOS “thag-” < SV; changed to avoid ambiguity with HORN (“ten”) and DS (“more”); compare with Gnomish “thisc” (adj), “thista-” (v) dry out, wipe; refers to dry cleaning; compare with “dry” (#195) Verbs, hands
134 pull sûh-* v DS (Moria) “sû” < DS (PO) “tugu” < Middle-Quenya “tuk-” (to draw, pull behind) pull, drag, draw (incl. a weapon) hands, armor, motion
135 push hât-* v SV “hashat” (spear) + LOS, SV “shatîg-” (to press, push, weigh down), probably from Quenya “sahtië” (pressure, forcing) also may mean “to poke”, “to thrust”, “to jab” hands, armor, motion
136 throw af- v LOS cast, throw, toss hands, ownership, rpg, armor
137 tie krimp- v TK, RI (to bind); see also “rope” (#61) to bind, tie hands, ownership
138 sew (clothes) hluth-* v LOS “hlu-” < MB < SV (to stick, knit); changed according to Nûrlâm rules; compare also with LOS “hluth” (flag, banner) and SV “hluthrum” (cloth) to sew, stitch cloth, technology, hands
139 count (numbers) ont-* v Quenya “onot-” quantity
140 say gashn- v LOS, probably from Valarin “akašân” = “he (Eru) says” to speak, say, tell; do not mix with “ghâsh-” (to burn) speech, modal
141 sing lash- v LOS (LUG), HORN < SV “aklash” (music) speech, sound
142 play tail- v LOS < MB, SV < Quenya “tyal-” play, exercise, practice, train verbs, rpg, warfare
143 float gump-* v SV “gûm-” (to fly) water, motion
144 flow sir-* v Quenya “sírë” see also “river” (#152) water, motion
145 freeze gogh-* v Sindarin “gochel” (a mass of ice) < Etym. “KHEL” see also “ice” (#165) water, weather, food
146 swell folg-* v NL < Gnomish “polc” (fat) < Primitive Elvish “PULU” (to swell) to swell, bloat Verbs
English Nûrlâm Part of
Etymology Comments Categories
147 sun ûzh n DS (Moria) < Quenya “úrë” (heat) < Etym. “UR” (be hot), Valarin “urus”; see also “fire” (#167, 2) some languages have numerous epithetic names of the Sun cosmic, weather, fire
148 moon shil n SV, HG (only “month”); probably from Quenya “isil”, “sil”, “silm”, Sindarin “ithil” (moon) moon, month cosmic, time
149 star ilz n LOS < Quenya “elen” cosmic, fire
150 water nîn n LOS < Quenya “nén” water, terrain, material, food
151 rain miz* n Quenya “mistë” see also “wet” (#194) weather, water
152 river sîr* n Quenya “sírë” see also “to flow” (#144) water, terrain
153 lake 1) rink* n TK, OC “ronk” + Quenya “ringwë” = “cold pool or lake (in mountains)” < Etym. “RINGI” (cold) water, terrain
2) ain* Quenya “ailo”, “ailin” (lake, pool)
154 sea kârsh* n NL, merging Quenya “Ekkaia” (outer sea), probably from Quenya “ëar”, Sindarin “gaear” with Hurrian “kiaše” sea, ocean water, terrain
155 salt kaish n NL < Hurrian “kiaše” (sea) materials, food, water
English Nûrlâm Part of
Etymology Comments Categories
156 stone gund n EL, all major dialects < Sindarin “Gondor” (Stone Land), Gondolin < Etym. “GOND” materials, terrain
157 sand tus* n Qenya “tyusse” materials, terrain
158 dust 1) maul* n Quenya “malo” (pollen) < Etym. “SMAL” (pollen, powder, flour) dust, powder, pollen materials, terrain, plants
2) hîsht LOS < SV ash (#168), dust materials, terrain
159 earth (soil, ground) ghâmp n LOS; compare with Etym. “KEM” (soil) earth, soil, ground terrain, materials
160 cloud shust* n Khuzdul “shathûr” + Gnomish “ust” weather, water
161 fog hizg* n Quenya “hiswë” fog, mist, haze weather, water
162 sky 1) nût n EL, all major dialects cosmic, weather
2) khîl* n DS “kʰīm” (Isengard), “kilm” (Mordor) < Proto-Orkish “kilmi” < Gnomish “climli” (heaven, sky), Adûnaic “gimli” (star) < Etym. “ƷEL” + MERP “kîl” < Albanian “qiell”
163 wind zûl* n Sindarin “sûl” weather
164 snow 1) fau* n Gnomish “fô”, Qenya “fáwe” (n), “fauta-” (v) weather, water, terrain
2) shrish* Etym. “SRIS”, “SRITH
165 ice gogh* n Sindarin “gochel” < Etym. “KHEL” see also “freeze” (#145) water, weather, terrain, materials, food
166 smoke 1) bhraf n LOS < MB “bhrev” fire
2) trim SV smoke, fume
167 fire 1) ghâsh n TK, CBS, probably from Valarin “igas” (heat) fire, flame fire
2) urush* Valarin “urus”, Etym. “UR-”
168 ash, ashes hîsht n LOS < SV see also “dust” (#158, 2) fire
169 burn ghâsh- v LL < TK, all major dialects see also “fire” (#167) fire, evil
170 road; path; trail 1) mûl n LOS < Quenya “malle” also “way” terrain, directions
2) mong DS
171 mountain 1) urun* n Quenya “oron” < “ÓROT” terrain
2) rod* TK PN “Othrod”, probably from Etym. “ÓROT”, compare with Sindarin “Orodruin”
3) urbh LOS < HORN also “pile” terrain, quantity
English Nûrlâm Part of
Etymology Comments Categories
172 red karn adj LOS < Quenya “carnë” colors
173 green ûzûl* adj LOS “uzul” < Vanyarin Quenya, Valarin “ezel” < “Ezellôchâr” (green mound); changed to escape ambiguity with verb's suffixes of 3rd person plural, past tense colors
174 yellow 1) snâl* adj LOS “mâl” < Quenya “malina” < Etym. “SMAL”, changed to escape ambiguity with other dialects colors
2) tulkh adj ZB < Valarin “tulukh” < Tulukhastâz (Tulkas, golden-haired) yellow, golden
175 white nink adj LOS < Quenya “ninquë” < Etym. “NIK-W” colors
176 black mor adj LOS < Sindarin “mor(n)”, Noldorin “maur” (gloom) < Etym. “MOR” (black) this translation comes from Sindarin, but more “Orcish” translation was probably “dark” (however this translation was abandoned) colors, evil
177 night fugh* n Gnomish “fuʒu”, “fui” time, fire
178 day ârsh n LOS, probably from Etym. “AR”[1], compare with Quenya “arië” (daytime), “árë” (daylight), “aurë” (day, daylight) time, fire
179 year ûzhraug* n DS “ûzh” (Sun, #147), HG “raug” (round) literally “sun cycle” time, cosmic
180 warm; hot (weather) 1) khâshûrz* adj “khâsh” (warmth) (n) < TK “ghâsh” (fire, #167) warm senses, weather, fire
2) gashûrz* “gash” (heat) (n) < SV “gash-” (to burn) < TK “ghâsh” (fire, #167) hot
181 cold (weather) graz adj LOS < SV cold, cool, chill; may refer to raw food senses, weather, food
English Nûrlâm Part of
Etymology Comments Categories
182 full gûk* adj melting of LOS < SV “gûk-” (to fill, pour), TK suffix “-ûk” (all) and LOS “ghûk” (complete, entire) < SV (adv) Adjectives
183 new 1) fîn adj LOS < Quenya “vinya” time
2) ûn adj LOS < HORN
3) gin adj DS, probably from Etym. “GWEN” (fresh) which gives the same Quenya word “vinya” as variant 1 also “fresh” time, quality, food
184 old adj TK “sharkû” (“old man”, orcish nickname of Saruman) time
185 good 1) bhog adj LOS (LUG) < HORN < Latin “bono” quality
2) nîr* NL, Hurrian “niri” + SV “mîr” < Albanian good, kind, nice, pretty, pleasant, enjoyable, lovely, beautiful
186 bad fik adj LOS < Quenya “feg” quality, evil
187 rotten nirgûrz* adj “nirg-” (to rot) (v) < Qenya “narqa-” (fade, wither), Gnomish “narcos” + NL “nir” (good) food, physiology, evil
188 dirty dug* adj “filth” (n) < TK OC “pushdug” (stinking or dung-filth) + HORN “dûg” (horrible, rotten, sour) < Sumerian “dug” (to be good, sweet) dirty, filthy terrain, curses
189 straight 1) tîr adv LOS right (into), straight (into); points to direction, used with nouns in Illative directions
2) ruzg* adj HORN “ruzag” (straight) honest, straight, absolute quality
190 round raug adj HORN < LOS “rag” (round) (n) < SV “rag-”; compare with Etym. “RAG” adjectives
191 sharp dulgûrz adj LOS < HORN armor, tools, senses
192 dull drag* adj LOS “darg” < SV “darga” (club), changed to avoid ambiguity with verb “to send” blunt, dull (about weapon); compare with “round” (#190) armor, tools, senses
193 smooth pâz* adj Quenya “pasta” < Etym. “PATH” not harsh senses
194 wet mizg* adj Etym. MIZD, Quenya “mistë” (rain, #151) weather, water, terrain, senses, cloth
195 dry thizg* adj LOS “thag” < SV; changed to avoid ambiguity with HORN (“ten”) and DS (“more”); compare with Gnomish “thisc” compare with “to wipe” (#133) weather, water, terrain, senses, cloth
196 right (correct) than* adj Sindarin “thand”, Noldorin “thenid”, Quenya “sanda” < Etym. “STAN” (firm, fix, decide, true, regular) right, correct, proper, fair, regular quality, mind
English Nûrlâm Part of
Etymology Comments Categories
197 near mush postp LOS (nearly) < MB < SV “mûsh” (close, next to, near, at) near, next (to); used with nouns in Allative; add -arz suffix to transform into adverb; add -ûrz suffix to transform into adjective measure
198 far baub postp HORN far (from); used with nouns in Ablative; add -arz suffix to transform into adverb; add -ûrz suffix to transform into adjective measure, directions
199 right (side) forg* adj Quenya “forya” (dexter) < Etym. “PHOR” (right hand) add -arz suffix to transform into adverb; add suffix -um or -urm to transform into noun directions
200 left (side) farkh adj LOS < SV add -arz suffix to transform into adverb; add suffix -um or -urm to transform into noun directions
201 at 1) or postp LOS at, in; Inessive case suffix, static presence, only about space in Nûrlâm auxiliary, measure, directions, adpositions, clitic
2) shi prep LOS at (time); only about time in Standard Nûrlâm, may refer to place in colloquial speech auxiliary, measure, directions, adpositions
202 in ishi postp TK, RI < probably Quenya locative case ending ”-ssë” into, inwards, inside, within; Illative case suffix, denotes motion inside place, object or static presence inside one place auxiliary, measure, directions, adpositions, clitic
203 with sha postp TK, OC (together) with; Comitative case suffix; marks collaborative action auxiliary, adpositions, clitic
204 and agh conj TK, RI Auxiliary
205 if ghung conj LOS < SV Auxiliary
206 because taitaga* pastp NL “tait-” (to cause), merging Gnomish “caith” and Quenya “tyar-” < Etym. “KYAR” (do, make, cause); compare with LOS “tûr-” with same etymology past passive participle “caused” used in adjectival phrase, which is an archaic way to express Auxiliary
207 name 1) îz* n Quenya “essë” people
2) yaz DS < Quenya “essë” also verb

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Swadesh 100 words list

Short list is given without detailed information. If there are synonyms, preferred variant is chosen for this table.

English Nûrlâm Swadesh 200 № English Nûrlâm Swadesh 200 №
1 I da 1 51 breast nirn 89
2 you fi (sing.) 2 52 heart tish 90
3 we dak 4 53 liver slârg 91
4 this za 7 54 drink (v) akr 92
5 that zîg 8 55 eat throkh 93
6 who mai 11 56 bite nâkh 94
7 what mash 12 57 see kin 101
8 not nar 16 58 hear khlâr 102
9 all ûk 17 59 know îst 103
10 many mak 18 60 sleep (v) lor 107
11 one ash 22 61 die mat 109
12 two krul 23 62 kill (v) dog 110
13 big dau 27 63 swim lunt 119
14 long rodh 28 64 fly (v) skoir 120
15 small mik 32 65 walk (v) ukh 121
16 woman -niz 36 66 come skât 122
17 man, male nor 37 67 lie, recline kât 123
18 person shra 38 68 sit (v) duz 124
19 fish skab 45 69 stand (v) bin 125
20 bird aig 46 70 give throg 128
21 dog hunk 47 71 say gashn 140
22 louse abh 48 72 sun ûzh 147
23 tree orn 51 73 moon shil 148
24 seed blûz 55 74 star ilz 149
25 leaf pâth 56 75 water nîn 150
English Nûrlâm Swadesh 200 № English Nûrlâm Swadesh 200 №
26 root bugh 57 76 rain (n) miz 151
27 bark (of tree) parb 58 77 stone gund 156
28 skin daft 62 78 sand tus 157
29 flesh, meat hrau 63 79 earth, soil ghâmp 159
30 blood ghor 64 80 cloud shust 160
31 bone takh 65 81 smoke bhraf 166
32 grease, fat tôm 66 82 fire ghâsh 167
33 egg fird 67 83 ash(es) hîsht 168
34 horn ras 68 84 burn (v) ghâsh 169
35 tail baut 69 85 path mûl 170
36 feather pozg 70 86 mountain rod 171
37 hair zud 71 87 red karn 172
38 head kaz 72 88 green ûzûl 173
39 ear khlau 73 89 yellow snâl 174
40 eye hont 74 90 white nink 175
41 nose pund 75 91 black mor 176
42 mouth pug 76 92 night (n) fugh 177
43 tooth nogh 77 93 hot gashûrz 180
44 tongue lâm 78 94 cold graz 181
45 claw glamb 79 95 full gûk 182
46 foot thul 80 96 new fîn 183
47 knee okh 82 97 good bhog 185
48 hand bazg 83 98 round (adj) raug 190
49 belly thûn 85 99 dry (adj) thizg 195
50 neck mâs 87 100 name îz 207

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swadesh.txt · Last modified: 2023/10/02 13:01 by morgoth