In previous lesson about nouns we discussed that Nûrlâm does not differentiate between singular and plural nouns, and we learned how to clarify that noun is singular using the articles. But while nouns are plural by default, like “uruk” probably means more than one “orc”, it's recommended to clarify that noun is plural anyway. We can specify the exact quantity using the numerals or use the words substituting exact numbers with words referring to uncertain quantity or amount (such words are called “quantifiers”).
Please remember, that some nouns in Nûrlâm are uncountable (the dictionary usually marks them in the comments). You can't specify exact quantity with numbers (including indefinite artice “ash”) for uncountable nouns, but you still can use quantifiers, and these words may be translated as plural (e.g. “ghâsh” may mean “fire” or “fires”, but you can't say “krâk ghâsh” = “five fire(s)”).
Simple numbers used to specify the exact quantity are called “cardinal numbers”.
The word “nar” may be used for “zero”, but it's not really a numeral, but rather a quantifier word (see below). It is not used in big numbers.
Cardinal numbers are placed before the noun, and unlike languages like Finnish and Russian the noun doesn't change when quantity is specified. Examples: “five orcs” ⇒ “krâk uruk”, “three rings” ⇒ “krig nazg”
Numbers from 11 to 19 are formed by saying something like “ten” and digit right after that. Nûrlâm do not have special words for 11 and 12. But as the word for “ten” is “nuk” and many numbers start with “k-”, the result uses only one “-k-”, similarly like compound word “nazgûl” is made from “nazg” and “gûl”.
Multiples of ten (20 – 90) are formed as <multiplier>nuk:
Hundreds are formed regularily as <multiplier>tusk (except 400 = “hantusk”). Similarly thousands are made as <multiplier>mink. Millions can be expressed as <multiplier>minkmink (lit. thousands of thousand). The word “one” = “ash” is usually when saying “one hundred/thousand/million”.
The word “agh” (and) separates every exponent of ten except in numbers from 11 to 19.
To translate the number 32768 into Nûrlâm we express it as: (3 * 10 + 2)x1000 + 7×100 + 60 + 8. Thus it becomes “krignukh agh krul mink agh udugtusk agh inknuk agh skri”.
To translate number 1917 ⇒ 1000 + 9×100 + 17 ⇒ mink agh krithtusk agh nukudug.
Quantifier words are used to express uncertain amount or quantity. They are usually1) placed before the noun, just like numbers. Common quantifier words include: “mak” (many, much), “mik” (little), “mûd” (some, few, several), “nar” (no, none), “ûk” (all). Nûrlâm uses the same quantifier words for countable and uncountable nouns. E.g. “mak uruk” = “many orcs”, “mak push” = “a lot of shit”, “mak hrizg” = “much pain”. Please note that quantifiers shall not be used with definite article suffix “-um”, for example “all the pain” should be translated just as “all pain” (“ûk hrizg”) or using word “za” (“ûk za hrizg”).
Translate the following phrases into Nûrlâm:
Translate from Nûrlâm into English:
Translate big numbers into Nûrlâm, or from Nûrlâm into numbers: