• Lesson I – Background information
• Lesson II – Black Speech Sounds and Pronunciation
• Lesson III – Nouns
• Lesson IV – Verbs: Infinitive and Present Tense
• Lesson V – Verbs: Future Tense
• Lesson VI – Adjectives and Word Order
• Lesson VII – Prepositions
• Lesson VIII – Verbs: Past Tense
• Lesson IX – Numbers
• Lesson X – Pronouns and Commands (Imperatives)
• * Lesson XII – Comparsions
• * Lesson XIII – Suffix order
• * Lesson XIV – Questions
• * Lesson XV – Participles and Passive Voice
• * Lesson XVI – Conditional and Subjunctive Moods
• Appendix A: Prefixes and Suffixes
• Appendix B: Grammar quick overview
• Appendix C: Measures, Directions, Army Ranks
• Appendix D: List Of Abbreviations
Lesson III – Nouns
There are only three simple rules for pluralizing nouns.
Names for races or people are never pluralized. For example, the word Nazgul is both singular and plural. The word Uruk is both singular and plural. If you wanted to say “bring the three uruk”, you would simply say, “Thrak Uruk gakh”. If you are talking about an entire race of people, use the suffix –hai, which means peoples or folk. So uruk-hai means “the uruk-people”, olog-hai means “the troll-people”, and so on.
**Please note: Because words like snaga (slave), durub (ruler), and sharlob (human female) refer to people, you would not pluralize them. So snaga is singular and plural.
Nouns ending in consonants become plural by adding “u” (note that this is the short u, not û). Nazg, (ring) = singular, nazgu = plural.
Nouns ending in vowels become plural by adding “z”. (goi = city, goiz = cities). There are very few Black Speech nouns that end in a vowel.
Pluralize the following nouns:
|goi (city)||lug (tower)||golug people (elf)|
|mau (warrior)**||hont (hand)||goth (lord)**|
|mokum (hatred)||ronk (pit)||horn (beast)|
|sharkû (old man)||shara (human man)||olog (troll)|
|duf (knife)||krimp (rope)||ufum (fear)|
** note that words for people, like warrior or goth, do not take a plural.
English has only two noun cases: the common and the possessive. Blackspeech has only first. So if you want to say “orc's axe”, you should say “pilik uruk-ob” = “axe of orc”. Svartiska dialect has seven cases! It's too hard for the most students and confronts with idea about simplicity and regularity of Black Speech.
Shadowlandian Black Speech has no articles. However some other dialects have them. Some people use “agh” (one) as indefinite article and “za” (this) as definite article. But remember, confusing the articles is one the most common error of non-English speaking people, and Black Speech shall be pretty simple. So don't use them.
Black Speech nouns don't have gender, as in English. But in example, for German or Russian students it's strange. There are gender modifiers in English (she- and -ess), but in BS there is only one gender modifier, the “-lob” suffix. It's used only with words referring to person or sometimes animal. Example: durub – durublob (ruler – femine ruler), sharkû – sharkûlob (old man – old woman), naur – naurlob (wolf – she-wolf).
The most of Black Speech linguists think that it has special Collective Plural nouns. But some of them call -hai (people) suffix so, others are for -ûk (all) suffix. But look, both variants are correct! In case of races (orc, elf, human) all of them become the whole nation (-hai), and for objects, animals or other individuals all of them are -ûk. Example: nazg – nazgu – nazgûk (one ring – several rings – all rings).
|<< Previous lesson||Index||Next lesson >>|