Lessons


Appendix A: Prefixes and Suffixes

This is not full list of suffixes. Some prepositions are missed here. Examples will be found in square brackets [ ]

Prefixes

a-
1. prefixed to an interrogative makes it into a relative (EL) [mal = where?, amal = where (as in, where the shadows lie)]
2. third person pronoun prefix (RE) [azagh = he of the mountain pass; agondor = he of Gondor]
im- self- (UNF) [imskûtum = self-defense]
mar- prefixed to verbs in questions (LUG)
nar- negation, non-, un-
nâr- anti-, un- (ULK)

Suffixes

-ag passive verb suffix UNF < HORN “âk” [uruk azaguzat = orc was killed]
-aga indefinite passive participle UNF < AA [akraga = being drunk]
-al occupation(like English -er) [hoitat = to hunt, hoital = hunter; zâgîrat = to joke, zâgîral = joker, jester] SV
-ar snû more (comparative ending) [gothûrzar snû = more powerful than]
-arz common Black Speech adverb ending LOS
-as across (prep) LOS
-at
1. verb infinitive TK [gimbat = to find]
2. third person singular verb ending
-atâr able, knowing; similar to -al suffix [dûshatâr = wizard, mage; from dush – magic] SV
-az most (comparative ending) [gothûrzaz = most powerful] LOS
-âzh partially, incompletely UNF
-bo off (preposition) [kulat-bo = to be off]
-dhog near, next to [Orodruin-dhog, = near Orodruin.]
-dur arch- (lit. “big/head of”) [dûshatârdur = archimage] ULK
-ghâra from (case suffix) LOS [Mordor-ghâra = from Mordor]
-hai people of TK (BS and AO) [urûk-hai = the urûk-people]
-irzi by (case suffix) LOS
-ishi in (preposition) TK [Mordor-ishi = in Mordor]
-izg I or me (used as a suffix, not as a 1st person singular pronoun) [kul-izg = I am]
-lob feminine word ending [Shelob] – deprecated
-ob of (preposition/case suffix) EL [Mordor-ob = of Mordor]
-og profession or occupation as -al but with superative meaning ULK (< TK Azog = Killer) [gashnog = linguist, compare with gashnal = talker]
-or at (preposition) LOS [Orthanc-or = at Orthanc]
-ri agh between (preposition) LOS [Rohan-ri agh Gondor-ri = between Rohan and Gondor]
-shi at (time) case suffix LOS [bûrz-shi = at night]
-thu beyond (preposition) LOS [Minas Morgul-thu = beyond Minas Morgul]
-tuk through (preposition) LOS [Ru-tuk, through the hall]
-u
1. Noun plural after consonant LL [Nazgu = rings] **note that the words for peoples, like uruk, ilid, Nazgul, gazat, etc., do not have plurals.
2. to (preposition) [Mordor-u = “to Mordor”; but note that “u bagronk”, meaning “to the cesspool” is poor orkish grammar in DBS.
3. Dative case suffix (The Second Nazgul)
-ub verb future tense suffix AN [gimbub = will find, gimbubut = they will find]
-ufa perfect passive participle UNF < HORN [akrufa = having been drunk]
-ug present active participle EL [azug = killing]
-uga past participle (participle II) EL [azuga = killed]
-ugum gerund, forming noun from verbs, process UNF [Brogb-izg akugum = I like cutting]
-ugz perfect active participle UNF [uruk azugz golug = orc having killed an elf]
-ûk all, completely, collective plural TK [thrakatulûk = to bring them all]
-ul them TK [gimbatul = to find them]
-um common noun forming suffix (mostly abstract) TK, LL [burzum = darkness, nâkhum = greediness]
-ûr for (case suffix) EL [durub-ûr = for the ruler.]
-ûrz a common BS adjective-forming suffix EL [matûrz = mortal]
-ûrzum forming abstract noun meaning characteristic, attribute or property UNF [ufûrzum = fearfulness]
-ut third person plural verb ending [gimbut = they find, gimbubut = they will find] EL
-uz verb past tense suffix LOS [gimbuz = found, gimbuzat = he found]
-z noun plural after vowel. EL [goi = city, goiz = cities]
-zan in the name of [Morgoth-zan = in the name of Morgoth]


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Comments

Scatha  2014-09-24, 04:01:03

Has anyone here ever tried the lessons? I think some of them may need some corrections and updates.  Let me know your thoughts.


bjornaxen  2016-06-08, 09:43:39

The Swedish LARP-orcish Svartiska was not really created by a single LARP-group but by the community of orc-larpers where different groups created different dialects.


bjornaxen  2017-12-15, 00:47:08

On pronunciation

There is an orc name that begins with y - Yagul - in The War of the Ring (The History of Middle Earth, vol. 8 )

I think Tolkien pronounce Mordor in Elvish, it is after all an Elvish name meaning Black land in Sindarin (or "shadows" in Quenya). It has nothing to do with pronunciation of the Black Speech.

And what about the sounds in the excercise: -qu- in "throqu-" and sr- in "srinkh-"? Especially -qu- seems out of place. Why not spell it kv or kw?


Un4givenOrc  2017-12-16, 10:01:39
bjornaxen wrote:

And what about the sounds in the excercise: -qu- in "throqu-" and sr- in "srinkh-"?

Yes, there as some issues with qu, specially when next letter is also u. Could be also spelled like Q. It appears only in words borrowed from elvish languages. I will replace it with something else if I would create new dialect.

I think there is nothing special with sr, for me it's easier to say than thr (thrakatulat).


bjornaxen  2017-12-23, 02:02:28

Does comparative and superlative adjectives, and adverbs mark plural?

The dark tower - lugbûrz; the darkest tower - lugbûrzaz; the darkest towers - lugbûrzazu

urukû ghâshuzat hîzarz lug "the old orc quickly burned the tower"; urukûz ghâshuzut hîzarzu lug "the old orcs quickly burned the tower"
---
edit 1. I saw that the adverb is not agreeing in number so: urukfuz ghâshuzut hîzarz lug
---
edit 2. I saw that I somehow confused the adjectives - this i now corrected.


Un4givenOrc  2017-12-23, 15:41:51

I think adverbs do not have plural form. Adjectives do in any form


bjornaxen  2017-12-25, 21:08:42

There are two collective plural, -hai and -ûk. In contrast to the ordinary plural these can be used with people and races. So we have uruk-hai (the orc people) as the most famous example. And then in the lessons (IV) there is an example of the -ûk ending used with  sharkû (old man) > sharkûk "all old men". So both the collective plurals can be used with people and races but what is the difference between them. What does sharkû-hai mean "all the old people" or maybe "the society of old men" or is it equivalent to sharkûk? Or is it just gibberish.


bjornaxen  2018-01-01, 16:47:30

In lesson XIII on suffix order, verbs collective #6 two endings are given, -ûk and -âzh. The -âzh ending is used with a verb 'ufubulâzh' (will frighten them slightly). I cannot find this -âzh in the lessons or in the wordlists (there is "azh (conj, HORN) "also").

It seems to mean "slightly" but then it is not a collective. Confusing


Un4givenOrc  2018-01-09, 13:27:04
bjornaxen wrote:

n the lessons (IV) there is an example of the -ûk ending used with  sharkû (old man) > sharkûk "all old men". So both the collective plurals can be used with people and races but what is the difference between them. What does sharkû-hai mean "all the old people" or maybe "the society of old men" or is it equivalent to sharkûk? Or is it just gibberish.

I think it's Scatha's mistake.
I don't like interpretation of -hai as collective plural suffix nor simply as "folk", "people of" etc. However I can't offer better one.

bjornaxen wrote:

n lesson XIII on suffix order, verbs collective #6 two endings are given, -ûk and -âzh. The -âzh ending is used with a verb 'ufubulâzh' (will frighten them slightly). I cannot find this -âzh in the lessons or in the wordlists (there is "azh (conj, HORN) "also").

I've added this shortly before my HDD crashed. Online version of dictionary is not updated still.
Here -uuk and -aazh are something like verb's aspect (perfect and "partial" respectively). Interpretation of "-uuk" as "completely", "fully" is taken from A. Nemirovsky's analysis



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