Lessons


* Lesson XIV – Questions

This lesson uses the information by Lugrekh:

Special Questions

“The way I see it would be that a question word should go at the start of a sentence.”

Where is Lugrekh?
Mal Lugrekh?

Why did Lugrekh kill the elves?
Mat Lugrekh azat golog?*

How did the elves escape?
Mol golog âdhnat?*

* He used infinitive in BS. It would be OK, if there were an auxilary verb like “did”. But Black Speech doesn't have them. We just don't need them and even the question mark as these special words (mal, mat, mol) indicate that the sentence is question. So it's better to use the same tense as in English. Therefore, we shall ask “Mal Lugrekh azuzat golog” and “Mal golog âdhnuzut?”

“The only wierd acting question word is what. I also feel like the what question word should go in the place of the noun that is the answer... The who question word can also function like what. It goes into the place in the sentence that the proper noun would go.”

English Black Speech
Q: What is Lugrekh?
A: Lugrekh is an orc
Lugrekh kulat mash? (lit. Lugrekh is what?)
Lugrekh kulat urûk
Q: What hit you?
A: A rock hit me
Mash grushat lat?
Shakamûb grushat-izish
Q: What do orcs kill?
A: The orcs kill elves!
Urûk azat* mash?
Urûk azat* golog
Q: Who killed the elves?
A: Lugrekh killed the elves!
Mirz azat** golog?
Lugrekh azat** golog!
Q: Who did the elves kill?
A: The elves killed the slaves!
Golog azat*** mirz? (lit. The elves killed who?)
Golog azat*** snaga

* There are many orcs, so the right word is azut!
** There is past tense, so azuzat will be more accurate!
*** And here we have many elves killed the slaves in the past, therefore azuzut is the right word!

In these examples mash, what, goes in the place where the unknown noun goes. Obviously the answer can also be shorterned down to one word. The third answer would normally be said: “golog” (just “elves!”)

Vocabulary – list of question words

what?     mash
when? mukh
where? mal
which? mut
who? mirz
whose? mirzob / mob
why? mat
how? mol

In declarative sentenses these words have the affix a- so you will never confuse them with questions. Examples:

What did you steal?
Mash orskuzlat?

You stole what you had firstly seen
Orskuzlat amash lat honuz asharz


General Questions

The other kind of questions don't use a particular word, they are normally the kind of question answered with a yes or a no. Examples:
Will you sit down?
Do you have the sword?
Did you kill the eleves?

As far as I know there is not a way to do this in Black Speech. So I'm going to propose a way and see what people think.

According to my dictionary m- is the root of all the interrogative words (questions). So, I would suggest using creating a new word based on the way nar- is used.

I'm going to add a new word to the dictionary, the word is mar- (I don't have that as a word currently). mar- works like nar- does, attaching to the front of a word. On it's own it means something like “huh? what you say?”. Examples:

You are an orc
Lat kul urûk

You are not an orc
Lat narkul urûk

Are you an orc?
Lat markul urûk?

Do you kill the elves?
Lat mar az golog?

 English-specific:

As you see, the word order differs from english rules. In Black Speech general questions have the same word order as in declarative sentences but can be distinguished by mentioned special word mar



Lesson's part below was written by me


Alternative Questions

I think alternative questions should work the same way as general questions. If you have two verbs in alternative you have to add mar- to both of them. The Black Speech word for “or” is “ogh”. And I fully accept Lugrekh's opinion on general questions, so here is my examples:

To be or not to be?
Kulat ogh narkulat?*

Is he dead or still alive?
Markulat matûrz ogh slaiûrz dâl?

Shall we go for the hunt or (shall we) stay at home?
Marukhub-izgu hoit-ûr ogh marshakropub mokhor?

* No auxilary verb in English – no mar in BS


Disjunctive Questions

It is doubtful to say if the orcs use these questions, but I will propose my point of view. The first part of question is the usual statement, and the second one is the verb with affix mar- or the word mar itself. Examples:

He is an orc, isn't he?
Ta kulat urûk, markulat?

You can eat the whole bull, can't you?
Lat pâsh throqu domûk, marpâsh?

You killed a dragon, didn't you?
Azuzlat gothbork, mar?



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Comments

Scatha  2014-09-24, 04:01:03

Has anyone here ever tried the lessons? I think some of them may need some corrections and updates.  Let me know your thoughts.


bjornaxen  2016-06-08, 09:43:39

The Swedish LARP-orcish Svartiska was not really created by a single LARP-group but by the community of orc-larpers where different groups created different dialects.


bjornaxen  2017-12-15, 00:47:08

On pronunciation

There is an orc name that begins with y - Yagul - in The War of the Ring (The History of Middle Earth, vol. 8 )

I think Tolkien pronounce Mordor in Elvish, it is after all an Elvish name meaning Black land in Sindarin (or "shadows" in Quenya). It has nothing to do with pronunciation of the Black Speech.

And what about the sounds in the excercise: -qu- in "throqu-" and sr- in "srinkh-"? Especially -qu- seems out of place. Why not spell it kv or kw?


Un4givenOrc  2017-12-16, 10:01:39
bjornaxen wrote:

And what about the sounds in the excercise: -qu- in "throqu-" and sr- in "srinkh-"?

Yes, there as some issues with qu, specially when next letter is also u. Could be also spelled like Q. It appears only in words borrowed from elvish languages. I will replace it with something else if I would create new dialect.

I think there is nothing special with sr, for me it's easier to say than thr (thrakatulat).


bjornaxen  2017-12-23, 02:02:28

Does comparative and superlative adjectives, and adverbs mark plural?

The dark tower - lugbûrz; the darkest tower - lugbûrzaz; the darkest towers - lugbûrzazu

urukû ghâshuzat hîzarz lug "the old orc quickly burned the tower"; urukûz ghâshuzut hîzarzu lug "the old orcs quickly burned the tower"
---
edit 1. I saw that the adverb is not agreeing in number so: urukfuz ghâshuzut hîzarz lug
---
edit 2. I saw that I somehow confused the adjectives - this i now corrected.


Un4givenOrc  2017-12-23, 15:41:51

I think adverbs do not have plural form. Adjectives do in any form


bjornaxen  2017-12-25, 21:08:42

There are two collective plural, -hai and -ûk. In contrast to the ordinary plural these can be used with people and races. So we have uruk-hai (the orc people) as the most famous example. And then in the lessons (IV) there is an example of the -ûk ending used with  sharkû (old man) > sharkûk "all old men". So both the collective plurals can be used with people and races but what is the difference between them. What does sharkû-hai mean "all the old people" or maybe "the society of old men" or is it equivalent to sharkûk? Or is it just gibberish.


bjornaxen  2018-01-01, 16:47:30

In lesson XIII on suffix order, verbs collective #6 two endings are given, -ûk and -âzh. The -âzh ending is used with a verb 'ufubulâzh' (will frighten them slightly). I cannot find this -âzh in the lessons or in the wordlists (there is "azh (conj, HORN) "also").

It seems to mean "slightly" but then it is not a collective. Confusing


Un4givenOrc  2018-01-09, 13:27:04
bjornaxen wrote:

n the lessons (IV) there is an example of the -ûk ending used with  sharkû (old man) > sharkûk "all old men". So both the collective plurals can be used with people and races but what is the difference between them. What does sharkû-hai mean "all the old people" or maybe "the society of old men" or is it equivalent to sharkûk? Or is it just gibberish.

I think it's Scatha's mistake.
I don't like interpretation of -hai as collective plural suffix nor simply as "folk", "people of" etc. However I can't offer better one.

bjornaxen wrote:

n lesson XIII on suffix order, verbs collective #6 two endings are given, -ûk and -âzh. The -âzh ending is used with a verb 'ufubulâzh' (will frighten them slightly). I cannot find this -âzh in the lessons or in the wordlists (there is "azh (conj, HORN) "also").

I've added this shortly before my HDD crashed. Online version of dictionary is not updated still.
Here -uuk and -aazh are something like verb's aspect (perfect and "partial" respectively). Interpretation of "-uuk" as "completely", "fully" is taken from A. Nemirovsky's analysis



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