Dialogues of Orcs in “The Uruk-hai” chapter of “The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers”

The chapter III: The Uruk-hai of Book Three of “The Lord of the Rings” contains several dialogues of orcs. As there were at least three different groups of orcs: from Isengard, Mordor and North (Misty Mountains), they used the Common Speech to communicate between tribes, and thus, Pippin and Merry were able to understand them. The only cited phrase in Debased Black Speech was the infamous “Uglúk u bagronk...”. It's stated that some Orcs used their languages, but as the narration was primarily from Hobbit's perspective, other phrases were not given, being incomprehensible to them.

Anyway, for purpose of extending Nûrlâm's dictionary, these phrases were translated into Neo Black Speech. If orcs can use a word in Westron, then such word should exist in Orcish too. However, especially in case of Northern tribes, it means they may not know enough Black Speech to express themselves in that language, and use Common Speech instead. Sentences told to Pippin and Saruman's orders in Westron will be also translated here.

The speech of unnamed orcs is stylized to more colloquial variant in vain of orcish curse, while Uglúk and Grishnákh speak proper Standard Nûrlâm. The name of Saruman is not translated, as in orcish curse, but in other places Orcs of Mordor will sometimes call him by moniker “Sharkey” in translation to show disrespect.

Conversation 1

Pippin recovers consciousness for the first time since Boromir's death and hears a quarrel between Orcs about what to do with them.

Character English Nûrlâm
Orc 1
(to Pippin)
Rest while you can, little fool! Rest while you can! We'll find a use for your legs before long. You'll wish you had got none before we get home. Puzt kusn lat pâsh, mik pah! Puzt kusn lat pâsh! Izgû ub gimb ash ushdaut ûr lab pakhû uth. Lat ub irm lat kulg brusuz nar ik izgû kulg barl(uz) u mokh.
Orc 2
(to Pippin)
If I had my way, you'd wish you were dead now, I'd make you squeak, you miserable rat. Lie quiet, or I'll tickle you with this. Don’t draw attention to yourself, or I may forget my orders. Curse the Isengarders! Uglúk u bagronk sha pushdug Saruman-glob búb-hosh skai! Ghung izg'ulg brusuz izub mong, lat kulg irmuz lat kulg gûrz rad, izg'ulg ikh latish kîsnat, lat fait nikh. Kât ghilarz, ogh izg ub tizg latish sha za. Nar suh hûz u îm, ogh izg ilf ribholat izub kazhû. Skûn zaz Ongoi-hai! Uglúk u bagronk sha pushdug Saruman-glob búb-hosh skai!
Orc 3 There's no time to kill them properly. No time for play on this trip. Nar il dogatul thanarz. Nar il ûr tail ir za gab.
Orc 4 That can't be helped. But why not kill them quick, kill them now? They're a cursed nuisance, and we're in a hurry. Evening's coming on, and we ought to get a move on. Zîg narpâsh kul bhokaga. Nân mûr nar dogatul hîsarz, dogatul rad? Ulû ash skûnaga traz, agh izgû or ash khîgaut. Ândh skât, agh izgû maug brashat ash mrûn.
Orc 5 (Uglúk) Orders. “Kill all but not the Halflings; they are to be brought back alive as quickly as possible”. That's my orders. Kazhum. “Dogûk ap nar piraga; tak kul thrakat krut kîbarz zash hîsarz zash falgarz”. Zîg kulû kazhumdab.
Many Orcs What are they wanted for? Why alive? Do they give good sport? Ulû kul nargaga ûr mash? Mûr kîbarz? Ulû mar throg bhog zrî?
Orc 5 (Uglúk) No! I heard that one of them has got something, something that's wanted for the War, some Elvish plot or other. Anyway they'll both be questioned. Nar! Dakozuz zamash ash takob brusuzâ ashmûd, ashmûd zamash kulâ nargaga ghûthumûr, mûd faurm golugûrz ogh isk. Konarz, takûk kulû markhat.
Many Orcs Is that all you know? Why don't we search them and find out? We might find something that we could use ourselves. Zîg markul ûk lat îst? Mûr nar igzû sogul agh gimb? Izgû ilfulg gimbat ashmûd zamash izgû pâshulg ushdat îm.
Orc 6 (Grishnákh) That is a very interesting remark. I may have to report that. The prisoners are not to be searched or plundered: those are my orders. Zîg kulâ ash khish kizgûrz sharz. Da ilf maug gauthut zîg. Za glûr narkulû sogat ogh praukat: zîg kulû kazhum dab.
Orc 5 (Uglúk) And mine too. “Alive and as captured; no spoiling”. That's my orders. Agh dab shuz. “Kîbarz agh kusn dikaga; nar raunaut”. Zîg kazhum dab.
Some of Northern Orcs Not our orders! We have come all the way from the Mines to kill, and avenge our folk. I wish to kill, and then go back north. Nar izubû kazhumû! Izgû skâtuzûk za mongûk ah za Krondû dogat agh grûthat izubû hai. Izg irm dogat, agh la ukhat kru u ford.
Orc 5 (Uglúk) Then you can wish again. I am Uglúk. I command. I return to Isengard by the shortest road. Dai fipâsh irmut nokhar. Dakul Uglúk. Dakazh. Dakruskât Ongoizu mûlirzi stazaz.
Orc 6 (Grishnákh) Is Saruman the master or the Great Eye? We should go back at once to Lugbúrz. Sharkû markulâ mâgzum ogh Bhahont? Dakmaug ukhut kru Lugbúrzu asharz.
Orc 7 If we could cross the Great River, we might. But there are not enough of us to venture down to the bridges. Ghung izgû pâshulg lautat za Sîrdau, izgû kulg ilf. Ap izgû kul nar thlûk hûrat dhutat u za durshû.
Orc 6 (Grishnákh) I came across. A winged Nazgûl awaits us northward on the east-bank. Daskâtuz as. Ash Nazgûl skoirûrz darbâtak fordarz fâlzumir ghânshûrz
Orc 7 Maybe, maybe! Then you'll fly off with our prisoners, and get all the pay and praise in Lugbúrz, and leave us to foot it as best we can through the Horse-country. No, we must stick together. These lands are dangerous: full of foul rebels and brigands. Falgarz, falgarz! Dai latû ub skoir bo sha izubû glûrû, agh ub nânt draugûk agh ludmautûk or Lugbûrz, agh ub rang izishû prakat zash bhogaz izgû pâsh tuk Lûkhuzg. Nar, izgû maug graghat. Zaz uzgû kul razgûrz: gûk ob glob shadmaukû agh tausû.
Uglúk Aye, we must stick together. I don't trust you little swine. You've no guts outside your own sties. But for us you'd all have run away. We are the fighting Uruk-hai! We slew the great warrior. We took the prisoners. We are the servants of Saruman the Wise, the White Hand: the Hand that gives us man's-flesh to eat. We came out of Isengard, and led you here, and we shall lead you back by the way we choose. I am Uglúk. I have spoken. Akh, dakmaug graghut. Danarkânam, bûbmik1). Fibrus nar hosh2) tomp bo îmob. Nân dakûr fi ûk irzulgûk. Dak kul Uruk-hai maukûrz! Dakdoguz maushabz. Daksnabuz glûrum. Dak kul snaga Saruman-ob3) Golal, Nalgninkum: Nalgum amash throgâtak tarkâps throkhat. Dakskâtuz Ongoizah, agh dughuzaf zinu, agh dakmaugaf krut mongirzi dak gobh. Dak kul Uglúk. Dak gashnuz.
Orc 6 (Grishnákh) to Uglúk You have spoken more than enough, Uglúk. I wonder how they would like it in Lugbúrz. They might think that Uglúk's shoulders needed relieving of a swollen head. They might ask where his strange ideas came from. Did they come from Saruman, perhaps? Who does he think he is, setting up on his own with his filthy white badges? They might agree with me, with Grishnákh their trusted messenger; and I Grishnákh say this: Saruman is a fool, and a dirty treacherous fool. But the Great Eye is on him. Figashnuz makarzar snû thlûk, Uglúk. Dak kizg marz tak brogbulgan Lugbúrzor. Takilfulg ûsut zamash amd Uglúkob bolkaga larghat ash kazbo folguga. Takilfulg markhut aminah nobhrâztab skâtuzû. Takmarskât Sarumanah, falgarz? Ta ûs takul mai, gaithug îmarz tansha dug nink? Takilfulg akhut dasha, Grishnákhsha montal takob kânuga; agh da Grishnákh gashn za: Saruman kulâ ash pah, agh ash pah glob fûrthûrz. Ap Bhahontum kulâ tazir.
Orc 6 (Grishnákh)
(to other Orcs)
Swine is it? How do you folk like being called swine by the muck-rakers of a dirty little wizard? It's orc-flesh they eat, I'll warrant. Bûb markulâ za? Marz hai gibrogb bugdag bûb bûb-horkhaukirzi saunor dug mik? Uruk-âpsish takthrokh, dafadub.
(to other Orcs after some quarrel)
Put up your weapons! And let's have no more nonsense! We go straight west from here, and down the stair. From there straight to the downs, then along the river to the forest. And we march day and night. That clear? Shrakh yak gib! Agh gâkh narsamd narmakar! Dagukh tîr dhûnshu zinah, agh dhu dilmas. Zîginah tîr kaupumu, lârz sîrumas tauzu. Agh dakthûkh shi ârsh agh fugh. Zîg kilk?
Uglúk Pick up those prisoners! Don't play any tricks with them! If they are not alive when we get back, someone else will die too. Shrakh zîg glûr! Nartail kon krip taksha! Ghung taknarkul kîbarz amil dakbarlub krut, haisk ghurub shuz.

Conversation 2

Orcs stop near some waterfall soon.

Character English Nûrlâm
Orc 8
(probably Snaga)
The scouts have come back at last. Nûshu skâtuz kru gorzarz.
Uglúk Well, what did you discover? Bhog, gigimbuz mash?
One of the scouts Only a single horseman, and he made off westwards. All's clear now. Tug ash lûkh shra, agh ta irzuz dhûnshu. Ûk kilk rad.
Uglúk Now, I daresay. But how long? You fools! You should have shot him. He'll raise the alarm. The cursed horsebreeders will hear of us by morning. Now we'll have to leg it double quick. Zil, daton. Ap marz rodharz? Gi glob! Gimaugulg bauzanûk. Tatulkub razgum. Lûkhbâlnalum skûnaga khlârub gus dak ik ânsh. Zil dakmaug prakut hîsarz krularz.
(to Pippin)
Sit up! My lads are tired of lugging you about. We have got to climb down, and you must use your legs. Be helpful now. No crying out, no trying to escape. We have ways of paying for tricks that you won't like, though they won't spoil your usefulness for the Master. Duz! Nonkdab kûbrâkuz suhatan. Dakmaug dhutut, agh fimaug ushdut pakhfib. Kul bhokûrz zil. Nar goshnat, nar tuglat irzut. Dakbrus mong paitat kripûr zamash finarbrogbub, nân taknarnizgub ushdurm gothumûr.
(to other orcs)
Now for the other! Zil iskumûr!
Many Orcs Can't take his medicine. Doesn't know what's good for him. Ai! We shall have some fun later. Nar pâsh norkat tab shart. Nar îst amash bhog tazûr. Ai! Izgû maug brusat mupsh zri la.
(to Hobbits)
Now then! None of that! Hold your tongues. No talk to one another. Any trouble will be reported at the other end, and He'll know how to pay you. You'll get bed and breakfast all right: more than you can stomach. Garn4)! Nar zîgob! Fîth lâmgib. Nar shugbaut ashu ûghu. Kon traz gauthâkub nauzor isk, agh Ta îstub amarz paitataf. Gibrashub khau agh ashrokil bhogûk: makar snû gipâsh thûnut.

Conversation 3

Orcs have descended.

Character English Nûrlâm
Uglúk Now straight on! West and a little north. Follow Lugdush. Zil tîr la! Dhûnshu agh fordu stârz. Hîl Lugdush.
One of Northern Orcs But what are we going to do at sunrise? Ap izgû pant krampat mash shi ânsh?
Uglúk Go on running. What do you think? Sit on the grass and wait for the Whiteskins to join the picnic? Frun khîgat. Gi ûs mash? Marduzat barthir agh mardarbat zi Daftnink-hai gaidat shrakhnahtum?
Some of Northern Orcs But we can't run in the sunlight. Ap izgû narpâsh khîgat or za ûdhîr.
Uglúk You'll run with me behind you. Run! Or you'll never see your beloved holes again. By the White Hand! What's the use of sending out mountain-maggots on a trip, only half trained. Run, curse you! Run while night lasts! Gikhîgub dasha gib it. Khîg! Ogh naril nokhar gikinub gronk brogbaga gib.5) Nalgninkirzi! Mash kulâ ushdaut hîstautob rodzomb gabut, tug pir-tailaga. Khîg, skûnaf! Khîg kusn fugh frunâ!6)

Conversation 4

They arrived to an area with soft soil. Pippin decided to leave some traces.

Character English Nûrlâm
Uglúk Ai! Steady now! Ai! Stalg zil!
Uglúk to Pippin Halt! Puzg!
Uglúk Enough! He's still got to run a long way yet. Make 'em both run! Just use the whip as a reminder. Thlûk! Zilu tabrashâk khîgut ash mongrodh marzkon. Ikhulûk khîgut! Tug ushd haukum ash bholalsi.
Uglúk to Pippin But that's not all. I shan't forget. Payment is only put off. Leg it! Ap zîg narkul ûk. Daribholub nar. Draug puzgâkâtâzh7) tug. Prak!

Conversation 5

Orcs run until the banks of some river. They are being surrounded by Rohirrim.

Character English Nûrlâm
Uglúk Very well. Leave them to me then! No killing, as I've told you before; but if you want to throw away what we've come all the way to get, throw it away! I'll look after it. Let the fighting Uruk-hai do the work, as usual. If you're afraid of the Whiteskins, run! Run! There's the forest. Get to it! It's your best hope. Off you go! And quick, before I knock a few more heads off, to put some sense into the others. Bhog sharz. Rangul dazûr dai! Nar dogat, oth dagashnuzaf dok; ap ghung gihiz hôghut amash dakskâtuz mongûk snabat, hôghan! Dagirkhub8) zazûr. Gâkh Uruk-hai dogrug krampubû bulum, oth thang. Ghung gikul uglaga Daftnink-hairzi, irz! Irz! Tau zîgin. Barl zazu! Za kul khardgib bhogaz. Bo gi ukh! Agh hîsarz, ik datuhubûk mûd makar kaz, gaithat mûd samd iskishi.
Uglúk Now we'll deal with Grishnákh. Zil daktadub Grishnákh-sha.
Uglúk to Snaga I know. The cursed horse-boys have got wind of us. But that's all your fault, Snaga. You and the other scouts ought to have your ears cut off. But we are the fighters. We'll feast on horseflesh yet, or something better. Da îst. Lûkhnonk skûnaga brashuzû zûl dakob. Ap zîgûk saug fib, Snaga. Fi agh isk nûsh maug brusut khlaugib grishaga. Ap dak kul maukal. Dak dafrub lûkhâpsir marzkon, ogh ashmûd nîrar.
Uglúk to Grishnákh So you've come back? Thought better of it, eh? Zârz fimarkruskâtuz? (Fi) ûsuz bhogar gus za, mar?
Grishnákh I've returned to see that Orders are carried out and the prisoners safe. Dakruskâtuz honat zamash Kazhum krampâkûk agh glûrum bharnarz.
Uglúk Indeed! Waste of effort. I'll see that orders are carried out in my command. And what else did you come back for? You went in a hurry. Did you leave anything behind? Kogarz! Skîturm rîthurmob. Dahonub zamash kazhum krampâkûk gashnautor dab. Agh gikruskâtuz mashûr ashisk? Gi ukhuz khîgautor. Gimarrang ashkon it?
Grishnákh I left a fool. But there were some stout fellows with him that are too good to lose. I knew you'd lead them into a mess. I've come to help them. Daranguz ash glob. Ap mûd shauk stalg kuzû zîgin tasha zamash kulû nîr mag bûfat. Da îstuz fidughulgul ash bûzgishi. Daskâtuz bhokatul.
Uglúk Splendid! But unless you've got some guts for fighting, you've taken the wrong way. Lugbúrz was your road. The Whiteskins are coming. What's happened to your precious Nazgûl? Has he had another mount shot under him? Now, if you'd brought him along, that might have been useful – if these Nazgûl are all they make out. Klorarz! Ap ghung tug finarbrusuz mûd hosh maukat, finorkuz mongfirkum. Lugbúrz kuz mûlfib. Daftnink-hai skâtû. Mash ghugshuz Nazgûlu turkûrz gib? Tamarbrusuz isk bambork bauzaga lata tash? Zil, ghung tathrakulgan shâs, zîg ilfulg kulut ushdûrz – ghung za Nazgûl kulû ûk takthak.
Grishnákh Nazgûl, Nazgûl. You speak of what is deep beyond the reach of your muddy dreams, Uglúk. Nazgûl! Ah! All that they make out! One day you'll wish that you had not said that. Ape! You ought to know that they're the apple of the Great Eye. But the winged Nazgûl: not yet, not yet. He won't let them show themselves across the Great River yet, not too soon. They're for the War – and other purposes. Nazgûl, Nazgûl. Figashn gus amash kulâ dhun ithu bazgurm taurfibob boltûrz, Uglúk. Nazgûl! Ah! Ûk zamash takthak! Shi ash ârsh fi irmub zamash finargashnulg zîg. Ingmit! Fimaug îstut zamash tak orbum Bhahontumob. Ap Nazgûlum skoirûrz: nar rad, nar rad. Ta narhiz dabhul traumutîm Sîrdau as rad, nar mag uth. Tak Gothûr – agh isk dind.
Uglúk You seem to know a lot. More than is good for you, I guess. Perhaps those in Lugbúrz might wonder how, and why. But in the meantime the Uruk-hai of Isengard can do the dirty work, as usual. Don't stand slavering there! Get your rabble together! The other swine are legging it to the forest. You'd better follow. You wouldn't get back to the Great River alive. Right off the mark! Now! I'll be on your heels. Fithakâzh îstut mak. Makar snû kulâ bhog fizûr, daton. Falgarz zîghai Lugbúrzor ilfulg kizgut amarz agh amûr. Ap shi zil Uruk-hai Ongoizor pâshû kramput buldugum, oth thang. Narbin pûthugâzh zîg! Srinkh lurgaukfib! Isk bûb prakû taumu. Fimaug hîlut bhogar. Finarkruskâtulg Sîrdauzu kîbarz. Tîr mûmbo! Zil! Dakub praglir fib.

Conversation 6

Hobbits are being carried again. Isengardeners outrun Northerners. Rohirrim start to attack.

Character English Nûrlâm
Isengard Orcs to Northern Orcs Maggots! You're cooked. The Whiteskins will catch you and eat you. They're coming! Zomb! Latû kul throbaga. Za Ninkdaft-hai ub ats latishû agh throkh latishû. Ulû skât!

Conversation 7

Orcs have fend off the first attack, but some start to desert.

Character English Nûrlâm
Grishnákh Well, here we are. Fine leadership! I hope the great Uglúk will lead us out again. Bhog, dak zin. Dughurm bhog! Dakhard za Uglúk shabz dughubak idh nokhar.
Uglúk Put those Halflings down! You, Lugdush, get two others and stand guard over them! They're not to be killed, unless the filthy Whiteskins break through. Understand? As long as I'm alive, I want 'em. But they're not to cry out, and they're not to be rescued. Bind their legs! Gaith zîghai Piraga dhu! Fi, Lugdush, snab krul isk agh bin tudat tala ul! Tak kul nardogat, ghung tug Daftnink-hai pushdug narshotub tuk. Marzûrb? Zash rodharz zash da kîbarz, danargul. Ap tak nargoshnat, agh tak narkul bharnat. Krimp pakh takob!

Conversation 8

Orcs make camp at night.

Character English Nûrlâm
Some orc of Isengard guarding the Hobbits They'll wait for the Sun, curse them! Why don't we get together and charge through? What's old Uglúk think he's doing, I should like to know? Ulû ub darb ûr za ûzh, skûnul! Mûr izgû narhogat agh nardunrat tuk? Mash kû Uglúk ûs ta kramp, izg maugulg brogbat îstat?
Uglúk I daresay you would. Meaning I don't think at all, eh? Curse you! You're as bad as the other rabble: the maggots and the apes of Lugbúrz. No good trying to charge with them. They'd just squeal and bolt, and there are more than enough of these filthy horse-boys to mop up our lot on the flat. There's only one thing those maggots can do: they can see like gimlets in the dark. But these Whiteskins have better night-eyes than most Men, from all I've heard; and don't forget their horses! They can see the night-breeze, or so it's said. Still there's one thing the fine fellows don't know: Mauhúr and his lads are in the forest, and they should turn up any time now. Daton fikulg. Fi idr danarûs narilûk, mar? Skûnaf! Gi zash fik oth isk lurgum: za zomb agh za ingmit Lugbúrzob. Nar bhog tuglat dunrat taksha. Tak kîsnulg tug agh irzulg, agh za lûkh-ghon kulû makar snû thlûk thigat lazd dakob tâlumir. Ash kûl tug za zomb pâshû kramput: takpâsh honut trîtsi burzumor. Ap za Daftnink-hai brusû fugh-hont srizar snû marm Tark-hai, ûkah dakozuz; agh nar ribhol lûkh takob! Takpâsh honut fugh-zûzdum, ogh zârz gashnû. Zizil shaukbhogum narîstû ash kûl: Mauhúr agh nonktab kulû taumishi, agh takmaug thakutûk shi kon il zil.

Conversation 9

Rohirrim's attack suddenly at night and kill many orcs. Hobbit's guards leave for battle, but Grishnákh keeps an eye on them:

Character English Nûrlâm
Grishnákh to Merry and Pippin Well, my little ones! Enjoying your nice rest? Or not? A little awkwardly placed perhaps: swords and whips on one side, and nasty spears on the other! Little people should not meddle in affairs that are too big for them. Bhog, ash mik dab! Marglazû puztaut nîr gib? Ogh narmar? Gaithaga râzarz âzh falgarz: lag agh hauk ash rambir, agh hashtukr iskir! Haimik narmaug rithruthut bildishi zamash kulû dau mag takûr.
Grishnákh Find it? Find what? What are you talking about, little one? Margimban? Gimb mash? Fishugb gus mash, ash mik?
Grishnákh O ho! That's what he means, is it? O ho! Very ve-ry dangerous, my little ones. O-ho! Zîg amash ta idr, mar? O-ho! Sharz, sharz razgûrz, ash mik dab.
Grishnákh Do I want it? Do I want it? What would I give for it? What do you mean? Damarhizan? Damarhizan? Dathrogulg zazûr mash? Fi idr mash?
Grishnákh My dear tender little fools, everything you have, and everything you know, will be got out of you in due time: everything! You'll wish there was more that you could tell to satisfy the Questioner, indeed you will: quite soon. We shan't hurry the enquiry. Oh dear no! What do you think you've been kept alive for? My dear little fellows, please believe me when I say that it was not out of kindness: that's not even one of Uglúk's faults. Pahdab turkûrz mûlk mik, ashûgh gibrus, agh ashûgh gi îst, nântâkub gizah shi bolkûrz il: ashûgh! Gi irmub zamash makar snû gipâsh gashnut thlûkat za Markhal, kogarz gi irmub: uth hîsarz. Daknarmaug khîgut hozdurm. Oh turkûrz nar! Mûr gi ûs gifîthâkuz kîbarz? Shaukdab turkûrz mik, dahas kâniz amil dagashn zamash za kuz nar nîrurmah: zîg nar yal ash saugob Uglúkob.
Grishnákh Have you got it – either of you? Gimarbrusan – ashkon gib?
Grishnákh Curse you, you filthy little vermin! Untie your legs? I'll untie every string in your bodies. Do you think I can't search you to the bones? Search you! I'll cut you both to quivering shreds. I don't need the help of your legs to get you away – and have you all to myself! Skûnaf, gi pushdug pashk mik! Marnankrimp pakh gib? Danankrimpub ûgh sorm nân kraurob gib. Gimarûs danarpâsh sogutaf takhu? Sogaf! Dagrishubafûk rimbu girthug. Danarbolk bhokum pakhob gib snabataf bo – agh dabrusatafûk îmûr!
“grismik” – as alternative
“khurg” – as alternative
literal translation of Sindarin name of Saruman “Curunír” would be “Saunor”, which in Nûrlâm means just “wizard”
“Now then” is an interjection with several meanings
lit. “Or never again you will see holes loved of yours”
lit. “What is the usage of sending mountain-maggots to trip, only half-trained”
stop-PASS-3SG=slightly, alternative variant: puztâkât ⇒ pause-PASS-3SG
Lit. “I will care”: 1SG=care-FUT
translations/ugluk_and_grishnakh.txt · Last modified: 2022/11/07 01:00 (external edit)