Prefixes are the affixes placed before the word's stem. Early researchers thought that prefixes were extremely rare or totally absent in Black Speech, like in other well-known agglutinative languages (e.g. Finnish and Turkish), but “Parma Eldalamberon” journal's issue #17 proved them wrong. There was stated that subject pronouns were prefixed to the verbs, so we can expect that there were some other prefixes too.

Prefixes in Nûrlâm may serve both as derivational and inflectional morphemes. Subjective enclitic personal pronouns which are also similar to prefixes are not listed here. However some other enclitic particles are counted as prefixes.

Prefix Etymology Meaning Example
am- EL makes relative pro-forms il (time) ⇒ amil (when)
bhû- HG pre-; prepared action gashn- (to tell) ⇒ bhûgashn- (to foretell, predict)
dro- HG pro-; motion forward, continuation hon- (to look) ⇒ drohon- (prospect, explore, recon)1)
îm-2) NL < Quenya “immo” self-3) shad- (to destroy) ⇒ shadurm (destruction) ⇒ îmshadurm (self-destruction)
kau- HG anti-, counter-; opposition, contrast, strong negation mauhûrz (military) ⇒ kaumauhûrz (anti-war)
kru- NL < LOS “krul” (“two”), “krut” (“back”, adv) re-; repeating action or fallback to previous state skât- (to come) ⇒ kruskât- (to return)
m(a)- EL from many Quenya question words starting with “ma” makes interrogative and dubitative pro-forms; sometimes before consonants ma- used instead in (place) ⇒ min (where?)
mar- LOS (LUG) question particle, forms interrogative mood Fimarkrampuzan? (Did you do it?)
nan- NL < Quenya “nan-” (back) as in “nancar” (to undo) dis-, un-; cancelling the action kramp- (to do) ⇒ nankramp- (to undo, cancel)
nar- AN < TK 4) negative particle for all word classes nîr (nice) ⇒ narnîr (not nice)
ri-5) LOS (prep. “between”) inter-; interrupting, preventing of action gashn- (to tell) ⇒ rigashn- (to interrupt)
thu- LOS (prep. “beyond”) over-; enforcing particle “thrâh-” (to advice) ⇒ “thuthrâh-” (to insist)

Prefixes like kru- or ri- have functions similar to aspect of verb, but may be applied to other lexical categories, such as nouns.

but not “look forward”!!!
used also as suffix with verbs
only with nouns
LOTR, TT, Book Four, Chapter X “The Choices of Master Samwise”
also suffix of Intrative case
prefixes.txt · Last modified: 2023/01/18 20:11 by morgoth