Wordlist: Auxiliary

This page will contain list of function words that rarely used stand-alone but still have it's own meaning like adpositions, conjunctions, conjunctive adverbs, various clitic words. It also will contain some interjections.

English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Comments
's b postp EL “ob” genitive case suffix after vowel
's ob postp EL genitive case suffix
's ub suffix LOS < EL “-ob” (see corresponding article) only in Colloquial speech;
genitive case suffix used rarely with some pronouns instead of “-ob”
(accusative case suffix) ish suffix LOS “izish” (me) Accusative / Objectve case suffix
(accusative case suffix) sh suffix LOS “izish” (me) Accusative / Objectve case suffix after vowel
(adverb suffix) arz suffix LOS < SV similative case ending “-ârz” 1) suffix for making adverbs from adjectives; replaces suffix “-ûrz” if it was present in initial adjective, added after otherwise;
2) makes pro-adverbs of reason from pronouns
(do smth.) back kru prefix NL < LOS “krul” (“two”), “krut” (“back”, adv) prefix of repeated action or fallback to previous state

префикс повторного действия, возврата в предыдущее состояние, например в таких словах как “отвоевать”, “переделать”, “возвращаться”, “повторить” и т.п.
(infinitive suffix) ut suffix NL
(participle, infinitive or gerundive suffix) at suffix TK, CBS, LOTR, RI participle, infinitive or gerundive suffix
(particularizing suffix/article) um suffix TK, CBS, LOTR, RI
(past / perfect tense suffix) uz suffix LOS past/perfect tense suffix
(prefix of undoing the action) nan prefix NL < Quenya “nancar” (to undo) prefix of cancelled action

префикс отмены действия
(present active participle suffix) ug suffix TK, DBS, LOTR, PN “Radbug”, OC “pushdug”
(prospective aspect suffix) uth adv NL < Gnomish “mu”, “mutha” (will, I am going to, I am about to) + LOS “gûth” (almost, nearly) usually have a tone of intention;
see also verb “pant-”
(to the) inside ishi postp TK, CBS, LOTR, RI;
Quenya locative case ending “-ssë”
Illative case suffix. Motion inside place or object
-forth agh ir conj about location
-forth agh la conj about time
-like si postp NL < Quenya “sívë”, Sindarin “sui” essive case suffix

may be used to translate adjectives like “foolish”, “friendly”
about gus prep LOS < MB mention somebody or something; use with objects in accusative case
about oth adv TK, AO, BOLT, PN “Othrod”;
Etym. “OS-” (about, around);
Sindarin “ost”, “os”, “oth” (fortress, city)
speculative translation
about (time) kurn prep LOS < Quenya “corna” (round, adj.) < Etym. “KOR” use with objects in accusative case
above tala prep EL;
? probably from Etym. “TÂ, TAGH-” (high, lofty) or “TALAM” (floor, base) or “DAL” (flat)
use with objects in accusative case
accordingly mbursharz adv NL < LOS “mbursh” < MB
across as postp LOS use with object in accusative case
after (place) it postp, adv LOS use with objects in genitive case
after (time) la prep, adv LOS use with objects in accusative case
after all (this) la za ûk expr lit. “after this all”
after that lazîg adv NL, see “la”, “zîg”
against kau conj, prep, prefix HG (only as preposition)
against (someone) bug prep SV use with objects in Accusative case
all the same konarz pro NL, see “kon” and “arz”
almost gûth adv LOS; see also “uth”
along as postp NL < LOS “as” (across, through) use with object in accusative case
along ulmakh prep SV use with objects in accusative case
along with shâs conj TK “sha” + LOS “as”
alongside ulmakh prep SV use with objects in accusative case
also shazârz conj, adv NL, lit. “with this manner”, see “sha” and “zârz” meanings “too” and “either” only in the end of the English phrase
also shuz conj NL < LOS “shum” (very much, too much) < MERP (big, great) < Albanian meanings “too” and “either” only in the end of the English phrase
although nân conj LOS < Quenya “nan” (but, on the contrary, on the other hand), “ono” introduces contrary ideas
always ilûk pro NL, see “il” and “ûk”
always ok adv NL < HG “okû”; compare with NL “gok” (flat, even) used as clitic adverb of aspect (habitual, iterative);
gains meaning ”used to” (regular action in the past, not familiriaty with) only together with verb in past tense
amidst ri postp LOS intrative case suffix
among ri postp LOS intrative case suffix
amongst ri postp LOS intrative case suffix
and agh conj TK, CBS, LOTR, RI;
Urartian “aye”?
and after agh ir conj about location
and after agh la conj about time
and later agh la conj about time
another isk pro NL, merging Quenya “exë” + LOS “izg” (I) used as part of other indefinite pronouns and adverbs
another time ilisk pro NL, see “il” and “isk”
anti- kau conj, prep, prefix HG (only as preposition)
any kon pro SV (anyone, anything, someone, anybody, somebody, somewhat) used as part of some other indefinite pronouns;
used only in declarative sentences, see “makon” for interrogative and dubitative modalities
any people haikon pro NL, see “hai”, “kon” only in Colloquial speech; use unanimated “ashkon” in Standard Nûrlâm
any? makon pro NL, see “mash”, “kon” only with interrogative (questions) and dubitative moods
anybody ashkon pro NL, see “ash”, “kon” Colloquial language has distinct word for “anyone; anybody” (see “haikon”)
anybody haikon pro NL, see “hai”, “kon” only in Colloquial speech; use unanimated “ashkon” in Standard Nûrlâm
anybody else haisk pro NL, see “hai”, “isk” only in Colloquial speech; use unanimated “ashisk” in Standard Nûrlâm
anyhow konarz pro NL, see “kon” and “arz”
anymore konarzar pro see “kon”; comparative form usually with negation
anyone ashkon pro NL, see “ash”, “kon” Colloquial language has distinct word for “anyone; anybody” (see “haikon”)
anyone haikon pro NL, see “hai”, “kon” only in Colloquial speech; use unanimated “ashkon” in Standard Nûrlâm
anyone else haisk pro NL, see “hai”, “isk” only in Colloquial speech; use unanimated “ashisk” in Standard Nûrlâm
anything ashkon pro NL, see “ash”, “kon” Colloquial language has distinct word for “anyone; anybody” (see “haikon”)
anything else ashisk pro NL, see “ash”, “isk”
anytime ilkon pro NL, see “il” and “kon”
anyway arzkon pro NL, see “kon” and “arz”
anyway konarz pro NL, see “kon” and “arz”
anywhere inkon pro NL, see “in” and “kon”
around oth adv TK, AO, BOLT, PN “Othrod”;
Etym. “OS-” (about, around);
Sindarin “ost”, “os”, “oth” (fortress, city)
speculative translation
around (place) kurn postp LOS < Quenya “corna” (round, adj.) < Etym. “KOR” use with objects in accusative case;
add suffix “-arz” to transform into adverb
around (time) kurn prep LOS < Quenya “corna” (round, adj.) < Etym. “KOR” use with objects in accusative case
as oth prep TK, AO, BOLT, PN “Othrod”;
Etym. “OS-” (about, around);
Sindarin “ost”, “os”, “oth” (fortress, city)
speculative translation
as (period of time) kusn conj, prep LOS < SV or MB use with objects in accusative case
as (…) as (…) zash (…) (…)si expr see “zash”, “si”
as (…) as (…) zash (…) oth (…) expr see “zash”, “oth”
as (…) as (…) zash (…) zash (…) expr see “zash”
as a si postp NL < Quenya “sívë”, Sindarin “sui” essive case suffix

may be used to translate adjectives like “foolish”, “friendly”
as far as zash baubarz zash expr see “zash”, “baub”
as far as (smb. concerned) zamash gus expr lit. “that about”
as far as (…) zash mak (…) zash (…) expr see “zash”, “mak”
as for (smb./smth.) zamash gus expr lit. “that about”
as if ghungsi conj see “ghung”, “si”
as long as zash rodharz zash expr see “zash”, “rodh”
as much (…) as (…) zash mak (…) zash (…) expr see “zash”, “mak”
as soon as zash uth zash expr see “zash”, “uth”
as the result laskâturmsi expr NL < LOS “la” (after) + “skât-” (to come) + “si” (as)
as though ghungsi conj see “ghung”, “si”
as well shazârz conj, adv NL, lit. “with this manner”, see “sha” and “zârz” meanings “too” and “either” only in the end of the English phrase
at ir postp LOS adessive case suffix; denotes static presence at/on surface;
not about time
at or postp LOS Inessive case suffix, static presence; only about space in Standard Nûrlâm; in colloquial speech preposition “shi” is used
at r postp LOS “ir”, “or” adessive or inessive case suffix after vowel in colloquial speech; denotes static presence at or inside object
at shi prep LOS only about exact time in Standard Nûrlâm, may refer to place in colloquial speech
at zir postp LOS “ir” adessive case suffix after vowel; denotes static presence at/on surface
at zor postp LOS “or” Inessive case suffix after vowel, static presence
at last gorzarz adv NL < DS “gorz-” (to end, finish)
atop tala prep EL;
? probably from Etym. “TÂ, TAGH-” (high, lofty) or “TALAM” (floor, base) or “DAL” (flat)
use with objects in accusative case
away from bo postp LOS < HG ablative case suffix; denotes motion from surface
aye akh expr LOS literally means “agree”, used as equivalent of English affirmative response “yes”

букв. “согласен”
barely musharz adv LOS (“nearly”) < MB, SV “mûsh” (close, next to, near, at)
barely âzh adv NL clitic adverb of aspect
be about to uth adv NL < Gnomish “mu”, “mutha” (will, I am going to, I am about to) + LOS “gûth” (almost, nearly) usually have a tone of intention;
see also verb “pant-”
be going to uth adv NL < Gnomish “mu”, “mutha” (will, I am going to, I am about to) + LOS “gûth” (almost, nearly) usually have a tone of intention;
see also verb “pant-”
because taitaga pastp see “tait-” past passive participle “caused” used in adjectival phrase, which is an archaic way to express;
the subject of dependent clause becomes object in Instrumental case
because zîgah zamash expr see “zîgah”, “zamash” inserted between result and the cause, when the result is presented before the cause;
lit. “from that that”
because of that zîgûr pro NL < “zîg” + “ûr” (see corresponding articles) lit. “for that”
before (place) ik postp LOS use with objects in genitive case
before (time) ik prep, conj LOS use with objects in accusative case;
not used as standalone “before” (see “dok” instead)
before (time) ugil prep SV use with objects in accusative case; only in colloquial speech, “ik” is more preferable variant
before long uth adv NL < Gnomish “mu”, “mutha” (will, I am going to, I am about to) + LOS “gûth” (almost, nearly) usually have a tone of intention;
see also verb “pant-”
behind it postp, adv LOS use with objects in genitive case
below lata prep EL, the word “tala” reversed or Etym. “LAD”, “LAT” (flat) use with objects in accusative case
beneath lata prep EL, the word “tala” reversed or Etym. “LAD”, “LAT” (flat) use with objects in accusative case
besides rambarz adv, conj NL, literally “sidely”, see “ramb” (n) with noun in genitive or ablative case
between ri postp LOS intrative case suffix
beyond ithu prep NL, merging LOS “it” + LOS “thu” + HG “izu” use with objects in genitive case
beyond thu postp LOS (beyond)
both za agh zîg expr lit. “this and that” used for answering alternative questions
both zîg agh isk expr lit. “that and another” used for answering alternative questions
both (…) and (…) agh (…) agh (…) expr TK “agh” (and)
but ap conj NL < Quenya “apa”
but nân conj LOS < Quenya “nan” (but, on the contrary, on the other hand), “ono” introduces contrary ideas
by irzi postp LOS “irzi” (by) instrumental case suffix
by rzi postp LOS “irzi” (by) instrumental case suffix after vowel
by (place) as postp NL < LOS “as” (across, through) use with object in accusative case
by (some time) ik prep, conj LOS use with objects in accusative case;
not used as standalone “before” (see “dok” instead)
by (some time) ugil prep SV use with objects in accusative case; only in colloquial speech, “ik” is more preferable variant
by (time) zi prep LOS (“until”) use with objects in accusative case or dependent clauses in past or future, but not present tense; with dependent clauses “amilu” is preferred

используется с существительными в винительном падеже или подчинённым предложением в прошедшем или будущем времени, но без отрицательной частицы; с подчинёнными предложениями лучше использовать “amilu”
by means of irzi postp LOS “irzi” (by) instrumental case suffix
by means of rzi postp LOS “irzi” (by) instrumental case suffix after vowel
by that zîgarz pro NL < “zîg” + “arz” (see corresponding articles)
by that zîgirzi pro see “zîg”, “irzi”
by the time (when) ik ilum (amil) expr see “ik”, “il”, “amil”
by the way iskri conj, pro see “isk”, “ri” literally “between the other things”
by the way mush mûlu expr see “mush”, “mûl”
by the way mûlarz adv see “mush”, “mûl” literally “roadly”
by this zarzi pro see “za”, “irzi”
by use of irzi postp LOS “irzi” (by) instrumental case suffix
by use of rzi postp LOS “irzi” (by) instrumental case suffix after vowel
by which amashirzi pro, conj NL, see “amash”, “irzi”
caused (by) taitaga pastp see “tait-” past passive participle “caused” used in adjectival phrase, which is an archaic way to express;
the subject of dependent clause becomes object in Instrumental case
certainly durtarz adv see “durt”
certainly rûzarz adv see “rûz”
chamber amb n NL < Noldorin “thamb” (hall), Quenya “sambe” (room, chamber), Primitive Elvish “stambē”, “stabnē” < Etym. “STAB” may be used in compond words, as a suffix, usually about some room, building or space (like -ry in “armory”, “cemetary”, “mortuary”)
completely ûk adv TK, CBS, LOTR, RI;
? Hurrian “-ok-” (fully, really)
clitic, aspect suffix
concerning gus prep LOS < MB mention somebody or something; use with objects in accusative case
concerning zamash gus expr lit. “that about”
consequently laskâturmsi expr NL < LOS “la” (after) + “skât-” (to come) + “si” (as)
considering that ûstug zamash expr NL, see “ûst-”, “zamash”
considering this ûstug za expr NL, see “ûst-”, “za”
counter- kau conj, prep, prefix HG (only as preposition)
despite narhonug (…)u (…) expr NL, see “nar”, “hon-”, “u”
despite pûthug (…)u expr NL, see “pûth-”, “-u”
despite that narhonug zîgu expr NL, see “nar”, “hon-”, “zîg”, “u”
dis- nan prefix NL < Quenya “nancar” (to undo) prefix of cancelled action

префикс отмены действия
dis- ri prefix LOS “ri” (between) used as prefix or suffix to modify meaning of verbs like “interrupt”, “interfere”, “prevent”, “disrupt”

префикс прерванного действия в глаголах “вмешаться”, “прервать”, “предотвратить”, “перебивать”
during furn prep NL < Etym. “BORÓN” (to last, endure), compare with Quenya “vor”, “vora”, “vorë”, “voro”, etc.

Similarity with English “for” is accidental
used with objects in accusative case

только о времени
during kusn conj, prep LOS < SV or MB use with objects in accusative case
each ûgh pro LOS < HG “ûgh-” (to suffice), probably from TK “-ûk” (completely, fully, totally) used as part of other indefinite pronouns and adverbs
either ashkon pro NL, see “ash”, “kon” Colloquial language has distinct word for “anyone; anybody” (see “haikon”)
either kon pro SV (anyone, anything, someone, anybody, somebody, somewhat) used as part of some other indefinite pronouns;
used only in declarative sentences, see “makon” for interrogative and dubitative modalities
either shuz conj NL < LOS “shum” (very much, too much) < MERP (big, great) < Albanian meanings “too” and “either” only in the end of the English phrase
either ûgh pro LOS < HG “ûgh-” (to suffice), probably from TK “-ûk” (completely, fully, totally) used as part of other indefinite pronouns and adverbs
either (…) or (…) ogh (…) ogh (…) expr LOS (SN) “ogh” (or)
else arzisk pro NL, see “isk” and “arz” used also as conjunction
else iskarz pro NL, see “isk” and “arz” used also as conjunction
else when ilisk pro NL, see “il” and “isk”
elsewhen ilisk pro NL, see “il” and “isk”
elsewhere inisk pro NL, see “in” and “isk”
even yal conj HG only conjunction, not adjective with meanings “divisible by 2”, “equal”, “flat”, etc.
even if yal ghung expr see “yal” and “ghung”
even though yal ghung expr see “yal” and “ghung”
ever? milkon pro NL, see “mil”, “kon” only with interrogative (questions) and dubitative moods
every ûgh pro LOS < HG “ûgh-” (to suffice), probably from TK “-ûk” (completely, fully, totally) used as part of other indefinite pronouns and adverbs
every time ilûgh pro NL, see “il” and “ûgh”
every way ûgharz pro NL, see “ûgh”, “arz”
everybody ashûgh pro NL, see “ash”, “ûgh” Colloquial language has distinct word for “everyone; everybody” (see “hai-ûgh”)
everybody hai-ûgh pro NL, see “hai”, “ûgh” only in Colloquial speech; use unanimated “ashûgh” in Standard Nûrlâm
everyone ashûgh pro NL, see “ash”, “ûgh” Colloquial language has distinct word for “everyone; everybody” (see “hai-ûgh”)
everyone hai-ûgh pro NL, see “hai”, “ûgh” only in Colloquial speech; use unanimated “ashûgh” in Standard Nûrlâm
everything ashûgh pro NL, see “ash”, “ûgh” Colloquial language has distinct word for “everyone; everybody” (see “hai-ûgh”)
everyway ûgharz pro NL, see “ûgh”, “arz”
everywhen ilûgh pro NL, see “il” and “ûgh”
everywhere inûgh pro NL, see “in” and “ûgh”
female niz n, suffix NL < Quenya “nís” (noun “woman”) “feminizer” suffix as “-ess” or “she-”
few mûd pro HG (“some”), probably from LOS, MB “mupsh” used as part of other indefinite pronouns and adverbs
finally gorzarz adv NL < DS “gorz-” (to end, finish)
finally ûk adv TK, CBS, LOTR, RI;
? Hurrian “-ok-” (fully, really)
clitic, aspect suffix
folk hai suffix TK, CBS, AO, LOTR, UT;
? Adûnaic suffix “-lâi” (folk) < Quenya “lië” (people), Sindarin “lî”, Early Noldorin “lhai” (folk, host, people) < Primitive Elvish “LΔ;
compare also with Qenya “hos(se)”, Noldorin “hoth” (host, crowd) < Etym. “KHOTH” (to gather)
used in names of races as whole like “uruk-hai”, “olog-hai” etc.
for zûr postp EL “ûr” dative case suffix after vowel
for ûr postp EL, probably from Quenya dative ending “ur” dative case suffix
for (reason) zârzamarz conj see “zârz”, “amarz” like in expression “for I have sinned”
for (time) furn prep NL < Etym. “BORÓN” (to last, endure), compare with Quenya “vor”, “vora”, “vorë”, “voro”, etc.

Similarity with English “for” is accidental
used with objects in accusative case

только о времени
for any reason konûr pro NL, see “kon” and “ûr”
for every reason ûghûr pro NL, see “ûgh”, “ûr”
for no reason narûr pro NL, see “nar” and “ûr”
for nothing narûr pro NL, see “nar” and “ûr”
for sake (of) ûrarz adv NL with noun in genitive case
for some reason mûdûr pro NL, see “mûd”, “ûr”
for sure durtarz adv see “durt”
for sure rûzarz adv see “rûz”
for this (reason) zazûr pro NL < “za” + “-zûr” (see corresponding articles)
fore- bhû prefix HG prefix of prepared action like in “predict”, “predestination”

префикс заранее подготовленного действия, например “приготовить”, “предназначать”
from ghâr prep HG < LOS “ghâra” only about time;
use with objects in accusative case
from (bottom to top) ah postp NL < HG prefix “ah-” (he of, he from) elative case suffix; denotes motion from inside
from (bottom to top) zah postp NL < HG prefix “ah-” (he of, he from) elative case suffix after vowel; denotes motion from inside
from (top to bottom) bo postp LOS < HG ablative case suffix; denotes motion from surface
from inside ah postp NL < HG prefix “ah-” (he of, he from) elative case suffix; denotes motion from inside
from inside zah postp NL < HG prefix “ah-” (he of, he from) elative case suffix after vowel; denotes motion from inside
from now zilah pro NL < “za” + “il” + “ah” (see corresponding articles) only about time;
in Modern analytical style should be replaced with “ghâr zil”
from outside of bo postp LOS < HG ablative case suffix; denotes motion from surface
from that zîgah pro NL < “zîg” + “-ah” (see corresponding articles) inserted between action and the result or consequences
from that (place) zîginah pro NL < “zîg” + “in” + “ah” (see corresponding articles) only about location
from that (time) zîgilah pro NL < “zîg” + “in” + “ah” (see corresponding articles) only about time; in Modern analytical style should be replaced with “lazil” or “ghâr zîgil”
from there zîginah pro NL < “zîg” + “in” + “ah” (see corresponding articles) only about location
from this zazah pro NL < “za” + “-ah” (see corresponding articles) inserted between action and the result or consequences;
not about location
from this place zinah pro NL < “za” + “in” + “ah” (see corresponding articles) only about direction
from where aminah pro NL, see “amin”, “ah” 1) after location
2) between action and result
3) between reason and consequences
fully ûk adv TK, CBS, LOTR, RI;
? Hurrian “-ok-” (fully, really)
clitic, aspect suffix
furthermore makarzar zîgob expr see “mak”, “zîg”, “ob”
furthermore zîgir conj, pro see “zîg”, “ir”
hardly âzh adv NL clitic adverb of aspect
hence zazah pro NL < “za” + “-ah” (see corresponding articles) inserted between action and the result or consequences;
not about location
hence zilah pro NL < “za” + “il” + “ah” (see corresponding articles) only about time;
in Modern analytical style should be replaced with “ghâr zil”
hence zinah pro NL < “za” + “in” + “ah” (see corresponding articles) only about direction
henceforth zilah pro NL < “za” + “il” + “ah” (see corresponding articles) only about time;
in Modern analytical style should be replaced with “ghâr zil”
her an pro NL < Hurrian absolutive 3rd singular clitic “-n(na)” Standard: any 3rd person singular objective enclitic pronoun;
Colloquial: not used
here zin pro NL < “za” + “in” (see corresponding articles)
hereby zarzi pro see “za”, “irzi”
hereby zârz pro NL < “za” + “arz” (see corresponding articles)
herefore zazûr pro NL < “za” + “-zûr” (see corresponding articles)
herefrom zilah pro NL < “za” + “il” + “ah” (see corresponding articles) only about time;
in Modern analytical style should be replaced with “ghâr zil”
hereto zazu pro NL < “za” + “-u” (see corresponding articles) addition to subject
hereto zilu pro NL, “zil” (now) + allative case suffix “-u” only about time;
in Modern analytical style should be replaced with “zizil”
hereto zinu pro NL < “za” + “in” + “u” (see corresponding articles) only about direction
herself îm pro NL < Quenya “immo” may be used as prefix “self-”
him an pro NL < Hurrian absolutive 3rd singular clitic “-n(na)” Standard: any 3rd person singular objective enclitic pronoun;
Colloquial: not used
himself îm pro NL < Quenya “immo” may be used as prefix “self-”
hither zinu pro NL < “za” + “in” + “u” (see corresponding articles) only about direction
how amarz pro NL, see “mash”, “arz” only relative; see “marz” for question particle
how many amak pro NL < LOS “mash” + SV “mak” (see corresponding articles) only relative; see “mamak” for interrogative counterpart
how much amak pro NL < LOS “mash” + SV “mak” (see corresponding articles) only relative; see “mamak” for interrogative counterpart
how? marz pro NL, see “mash”, “arz” only interrogative (in questions); see “amarz” for relative counterpart
however marzkon pro NL, see “marz”, “kon” only with interrogative (questions) and dubitative moods
however nar mikarzar zîgob expr see individual words lit. “not less of that”
huh? mar expr LOS (LUG) in Standard Nûrlâm used as prefix of interrogative mood
I daresay dahûr gashnut expr NL, lit. “I dare to say”; see “da”, “hûr-”, “gashn-”
i.e. zîg kulâ expr see “zîg”, “kul-”
id est zîg kulâ expr see “zîg”, “kul-”
if ghung conj LOS < SV < SV “ghug” (to be, live, exist)
if I were (smb./smth.) dakulg (…)si expr NL, see “da”, “kul-”, “si”;
1SG=be-SJV (…)=ESS;
immediately ad adv NL < LOS “rad” (now) see “rad”, used only with verbs ending with several consonants
in ishi postp TK, CBS, LOTR, RI;
Quenya locative case ending “-ssë”
Illative case suffix. Motion inside place or object
in or postp LOS Inessive case suffix, static presence; only about space in Standard Nûrlâm; in colloquial speech preposition “shi” is used
in r postp LOS “ir”, “or” adessive or inessive case suffix after vowel in colloquial speech; denotes static presence at or inside object
in shi prep LOS only about exact time in Standard Nûrlâm, may refer to place in colloquial speech
in shi postp see “ishi” Illative case suffix after vowel. Motion inside place, object or static presence inside one place
in zor postp LOS “or” Inessive case suffix after vowel, static presence
in (period of time) furn prep NL < Etym. “BORÓN” (to last, endure), compare with Quenya “vor”, “vora”, “vorë”, “voro”, etc.

Similarity with English “for” is accidental
used with objects in accusative case

только о времени
in a long time zi rodharz (ik) expr see “zi”, “rodh”, “ik” about time
in contrast rambiskir expr NL, see “ramb”, “isk”, “ir” lit. “on the other side”
in front of ik postp LOS use with objects in genitive case
in place of inor (…)ob expr NL, see “in”, “or” and “ob”
in spite of narhonug (…)u (…) expr NL, see “nar”, “hon-”, “u”
in spite of pûthug (…)u expr NL, see “pûth-”, “-u”
in spite of that narhonug zîgu expr NL, see “nar”, “hon-”, “zîg”, “u”
in that case dai conj DS
in the end gorzarz adv NL < DS “gorz-” (to end, finish)
in the meantime shi zil expr see “shi”, “zil” “at now”
in the meantime shi zîgil expr see “shi”, “zîg”, “il” “at then”
in the name of îzan prep merging NL “îz” with LOS “zan” use with objects in genitive case
incidentally mush mûlu expr see “mush”, “mûl”
incidentally mûlarz adv see “mush”, “mûl” literally “roadly”
inside nâd adv, postp NL, merging MERP “nâdar” (amongst) < Albanian with Primitive Elvish “ndē̆” (inside) < Etym. (AC) “(N)DI”;
see also “nod”
used standalone as adverb or with objects in inessive or genitive case;
may be replaced with just inessive case (preferable);
expressions like “to the inside” and “from inside” are translated with just Illative and Elative cases correspondingly
inside shi postp see “ishi” Illative case suffix after vowel. Motion inside place, object or static presence inside one place
insomuch zamaku pro see “zamak” and “u” to so much degree
instead sazgishi adv NL, see “sazg” and “ishi” when “instead” is final in clause; not “instead of” (see “inor … ob”)
instead of inor (…)ob expr NL, see “in”, “or” and “ob”
inter- ri prefix LOS “ri” (between) used as prefix or suffix to modify meaning of verbs like “interrupt”, “interfere”, “prevent”, “disrupt”

префикс прерванного действия в глаголах “вмешаться”, “прервать”, “предотвратить”, “перебивать”
into ishi postp TK, CBS, LOTR, RI;
Quenya locative case ending “-ssë”
Illative case suffix. Motion inside place or object
into shi postp see “ishi” Illative case suffix after vowel. Motion inside place, object or static presence inside one place
inwards ishi postp TK, CBS, LOTR, RI;
Quenya locative case ending “-ssë”
Illative case suffix. Motion inside place or object
inwards nâd adv, postp NL, merging MERP “nâdar” (amongst) < Albanian with Primitive Elvish “ndē̆” (inside) < Etym. (AC) “(N)DI”;
see also “nod”
used standalone as adverb or with objects in inessive or genitive case;
may be replaced with just inessive case (preferable);
expressions like “to the inside” and “from inside” are translated with just Illative and Elative cases correspondingly
inwards shi postp see “ishi” Illative case suffix after vowel. Motion inside place, object or static presence inside one place
it an pro NL < Hurrian absolutive 3rd singular clitic “-n(na)” Standard: any 3rd person singular objective enclitic pronoun;
Colloquial: not used
it is not that nar zîg zamash expr see individual words
it is not that (…) but (…) nar kogarz (…) ap hîsarzar (…) expr see individual words
itself îm pro NL < Quenya “immo” may be used as prefix “self-”
just âzh adv NL clitic adverb of aspect
just a little âzh adv NL clitic adverb of aspect
just as (…) so (…) zash (…) zârz (…) expr see “zash”, “zârz”
just started îs adv NL < LOS “îs-” (to begin) clitic adverb of aspect;
only about unfinished action
lately ladarz adv see “lad”
later la prep, adv LOS use with objects in accusative case
lightly âzh adv NL clitic adverb of aspect
like oth prep TK, AO, BOLT, PN “Othrod”;
Etym. “OS-” (about, around);
Sindarin “ost”, “os”, “oth” (fortress, city)
speculative translation
like a si postp NL < Quenya “sívë”, Sindarin “sui” essive case suffix

may be used to translate adjectives like “foolish”, “friendly”
likewise otharz adv, conj see “oth”
long before zi rodharz (ik) expr see “zi”, “rodh”, “ik” about time
me iz pro NL < LOS “-izg”, ZB “-ish” (1st person exclusive clitic pronoun in absolutive case) < Hurrian standalone 1st person singular pronoun “ishte” Standard: 1st person singular objective enclitic pronoun;
Colloquial: not used
meanwhile shi zil expr see “shi”, “zil” “at now”
meanwhile shi zîgil expr see “shi”, “zîg”, “il” “at then”
moreover makarzar zîgob expr see “mak”, “zîg”, “ob”
moreover zîgir conj, pro see “zîg”, “ir”
myself îm pro NL < Quenya “immo” may be used as prefix “self-”
nearly gûth adv LOS; see also “uth”
nearly musharz adv LOS (“nearly”) < MB, SV “mûsh” (close, next to, near, at)
nearly âzh adv NL clitic adverb of aspect
neither nar(…) (…) shuz expr NL, see “shuz”, “nar” usually in answers like “Neither had I”, “Neither do I”, “Neither he was” etc.
neither shuz nar(…) conj NL, see “shuz”, “nar” usually in answers like “Neither had I”, “Neither do I”, “Neither he was” etc.
neither (in answers) narash pro NL, see “nar” and “ash” Colloquial speech has distinct word “narai” for “nobody” and “no one”.

meaning “neither” only in answers with this one word (e.g. “Do you like apples or oranges?” - “Neither”)
neither (…) nar (…)ob expr see “nar”, “ob”
neither (…) nor (…) nar (…) nar (…) expr see “nar”
never naril pro NL, see “nar” and “il”
nevertheless nar mikarzar zîgob expr see individual words lit. “not less of that”
next (time) abarzar adv see “ab”
next (time) shi ilab expr see “shi”, “il”, “ab”
next time la prep, adv LOS use with objects in accusative case
no nar affix AN < TK, DBS, LOTR (untranslated interjection of disagreement) used as prefix or suffix like “non-”, “un-”, “-n't”
no more than nar makarzar (snû) expr see “nar”, “mak”, “snû”
no one narai pro NL, see “nar” and “hai” only in Colloquial speech
no one narash pro NL, see “nar” and “ash” Colloquial speech has distinct word “narai” for “nobody” and “no one”.

meaning “neither” only in answers with this one word (e.g. “Do you like apples or oranges?” - “Neither”)
no sooner than naruthar snû expr see “nar”, “uth”, “snû”
no way nararz pro NL, see “nar” and “arz”
nobody narai pro NL, see “nar” and “hai” only in Colloquial speech
nobody narash pro NL, see “nar” and “ash” Colloquial speech has distinct word “narai” for “nobody” and “no one”.

meaning “neither” only in answers with this one word (e.g. “Do you like apples or oranges?” - “Neither”)
none nar pro NL < AN < TK, DBS, LOTR (untranslated interjection of disagreement) used to make other indefinite pronouns and adverbs
none narash pro NL, see “nar” and “ash” Colloquial speech has distinct word “narai” for “nobody” and “no one”.

meaning “neither” only in answers with this one word (e.g. “Do you like apples or oranges?” - “Neither”)
nonetheless nar mikarzar zîgob expr see individual words lit. “not less of that”
nor agh (…) nar conj see “agh”, “nar”
not nar affix AN < TK, DBS, LOTR (untranslated interjection of disagreement) used as prefix or suffix like “non-”, “un-”, “-n't”
not (…) but rather (…) nar (…) ap (…) hîsarzar expr see “nar”, “hîsarzar”, “ap”
not a single one narash pro NL, see “nar” and “ash” Colloquial speech has distinct word “narai” for “nobody” and “no one”.

meaning “neither” only in answers with this one word (e.g. “Do you like apples or oranges?” - “Neither”)
not exactly (…) but (…) nar kogarz (…) ap hîsarzar (…) expr see individual words
not how nararz pro NL, see “nar” and “arz”
not just (…) but (…) too nar tug (…) ap (…) shuz expr see individual words
not much (…) as (…) nar zamak (…) zîgmaksi (…) expr see individual words lit. “not so much … as that much …”
not only (…) but (also) (…) nar tug (…) ap (shazârz) (…) expr see individual words
not only (…) but (…) too nar tug (…) ap (…) shuz expr see individual words
not really (…) but (…) nar kogarz (…) ap hîsarzar (…) expr see individual words
nothing narash pro NL, see “nar” and “ash” Colloquial speech has distinct word “narai” for “nobody” and “no one”.

meaning “neither” only in answers with this one word (e.g. “Do you like apples or oranges?” - “Neither”)
now ad adv NL < LOS “rad” (now) see “rad”, used only with verbs ending with several consonants
now zil pro NL < “za” + “il” (see corresponding articles)
now that zil amil expr see “zil”, “mil”
nowhen naril pro NL, see “nar” and “il”
nowhere narin pro NL, see “nar” and “in”
of b postp EL “ob” genitive case suffix after vowel
of ob postp EL genitive case suffix
of ub suffix LOS < EL “-ob” (see corresponding article) only in Colloquial speech;
genitive case suffix used rarely with some pronouns instead of “-ob”
of course durtarz adv see “durt”
off bo postp LOS < HG ablative case suffix; denotes motion from surface
on ir postp LOS adessive case suffix; denotes static presence at/on surface;
not about time
on r postp LOS “ir”, “or” adessive or inessive case suffix after vowel in colloquial speech; denotes static presence at or inside object
on zir postp LOS “ir” adessive case suffix after vowel; denotes static presence at/on surface
on (time) irg prep NL < SV, ZA “erg” (at, on) when action (will) happen at certain time interval, but this interval is quite long (as Egnlish “on Monday”)

в довольно продолжительный промежуток времени (напр. “в понедельник”); по каким-либо временным интервалам (“по вторникам”, “по утрам”)
on (to continue) agh la conj about time
on the contrary rambiskir expr NL, see “ramb”, “isk”, “ir” lit. “on the other side”
on the other hand nalgiskir expr NL, see “nalg”, “isk”, “ir”
on top of ir postp LOS adessive case suffix; denotes static presence at/on surface;
not about time
on top of r postp LOS “ir”, “or” adessive or inessive case suffix after vowel in colloquial speech; denotes static presence at or inside object
on top of tala prep EL;
? probably from Etym. “TÂ, TAGH-” (high, lofty) or “TALAM” (floor, base) or “DAL” (flat)
use with objects in accusative case
on top of zir postp LOS “ir” adessive case suffix after vowel; denotes static presence at/on surface
on top of that zîgir conj, pro see “zîg”, “ir”
one ash # TK, CBS, LOTR, RI;
Hurrian “she”?
often used as indefinite article (a, an); as standard Nûrlâm lacks grammar category of number, it denotes singular, because nouns are plural by default
onto u postp TK, DBS, LOTR, OC; was used as preposition allative case suffix
onto zu postp see “u” allative case suffix after vowel
opposite to (place) bug postp MB, SV more like adjective or adverb used together with objects in Allative case
or ogh conj LOS (SN)
other isk pro NL, merging Quenya “exë” + LOS “izg” (I) used as part of other indefinite pronouns and adverbs
otherwise arzisk pro NL, see “isk” and “arz” used also as conjunction
otherwise iskarz pro NL, see “isk” and “arz” used also as conjunction
ourselves îm pro NL < Quenya “immo” may be used as prefix “self-”
out lût adv LOS standalone adverb or together with noun in genitive case (“outside of”);
for expressions “from outside”, “to the outside” or “at outside” use just Allative, Adessive or Ablative cases
out of ah postp NL < HG prefix “ah-” (he of, he from) elative case suffix; denotes motion from inside
out of zah postp NL < HG prefix “ah-” (he of, he from) elative case suffix after vowel; denotes motion from inside
outside lût adv LOS standalone adverb or together with noun in genitive case (“outside of”);
for expressions “from outside”, “to the outside” or “at outside” use just Allative, Adessive or Ablative cases
over tala prep EL;
? probably from Etym. “TÂ, TAGH-” (high, lofty) or “TALAM” (floor, base) or “DAL” (flat)
use with objects in accusative case
over thu postp LOS (beyond)
over here zinu pro NL < “za” + “in” + “u” (see corresponding articles) only about direction
over there zîginu pro NL < “zîg” + “in” + “-u” (see corresponding articles) only about direction
over- thu prefix LOS (beyond) enforcing particle

усилительная частица
partially âzh adv NL clitic adverb of aspect
past (place) as postp LOS use with object in accusative case
people hai suffix TK, CBS, AO, LOTR, UT;
? Adûnaic suffix “-lâi” (folk) < Quenya “lië” (people), Sindarin “lî”, Early Noldorin “lhai” (folk, host, people) < Primitive Elvish “LΔ;
compare also with Qenya “hos(se)”, Noldorin “hoth” (host, crowd) < Etym. “KHOTH” (to gather)
used in names of races as whole like “uruk-hai”, “olog-hai” etc.
pre- bhû prefix HG prefix of prepared action like in “predict”, “predestination”

префикс заранее подготовленного действия, например “приготовить”, “предназначать”
pre- ri prefix LOS “ri” (between) used as prefix or suffix to modify meaning of verbs like “interrupt”, “interfere”, “prevent”, “disrupt”

префикс прерванного действия в глаголах “вмешаться”, “прервать”, “предотвратить”, “перебивать”
precisely aktarz adv NL < ULK “aktum” (accuracy; precision; marksmanship)
prior to ik prep, conj LOS use with objects in accusative case;
not used as standalone “before” (see “dok” instead)
prior to ugil prep SV use with objects in accusative case; only in colloquial speech, “ik” is more preferable variant
race hai suffix TK, CBS, AO, LOTR, UT;
? Adûnaic suffix “-lâi” (folk) < Quenya “lië” (people), Sindarin “lî”, Early Noldorin “lhai” (folk, host, people) < Primitive Elvish “LΔ;
compare also with Qenya “hos(se)”, Noldorin “hoth” (host, crowd) < Etym. “KHOTH” (to gather)
used in names of races as whole like “uruk-hai”, “olog-hai” etc.
rather hîsarzar adv NL < LOS “hîs” (adj.) (fast, quick, swift, soon, rathe, etc.) + adverb suffix “-arz” + comparative suffix “-ar” in expressions like “I'd rather…”;
not with meanings “quite”, “enough” (“He is rather big”)
rather (…) than (…) hîsarzar (…) snû (…) expr see “hîsarzar”, “snû”
re- kru prefix NL < LOS “krul” (“two”), “krut” (“back”, adv) prefix of repeated action or fallback to previous state

префикс повторного действия, возврата в предыдущее состояние, например в таких словах как “отвоевать”, “переделать”, “возвращаться”, “повторить” и т.п.
recently îs adv NL < LOS “îs-” (to begin) clitic adverb of aspect;
only about unfinished action
regarding gus prep LOS < MB mention somebody or something; use with objects in accusative case
regarding to zamash gus expr lit. “that about”
regardless of narhonug (…)u (…) expr NL, see “nar”, “hon-”, “u”
regardless of that narhonug zîgu expr NL, see “nar”, “hon-”, “zîg”, “u”
regularly ok adv NL < HG “okû”; compare with NL “gok” (flat, even) used as clitic adverb of aspect (habitual, iterative);
gains meaning ”used to” (regular action in the past, not familiriaty with) only together with verb in past tense
respectively mbursharz adv NL < LOS “mbursh” < MB
right? mar expr LOS (LUG) in Standard Nûrlâm used as prefix of interrogative mood
room amb n NL < Noldorin “thamb” (hall), Quenya “sambe” (room, chamber), Primitive Elvish “stambē”, “stabnē” < Etym. “STAB” may be used in compond words, as a suffix, usually about some room, building or space (like -ry in “armory”, “cemetary”, “mortuary”)
same as, as (…) as (…), so (…) as (…) zash prep SV use with objects in essive case
self îm pro NL < Quenya “immo” may be used as prefix “self-”
several mûd pro HG (“some”), probably from LOS, MB “mupsh” used as part of other indefinite pronouns and adverbs
shall ub suffix AN, probably from Quenya future tense suffix “-uva”, Old Sindarin “-ubā” (remote future suffix) future tense suffix
she- niz n, suffix NL < Quenya “nís” (noun “woman”) “feminizer” suffix as “-ess” or “she-”
similar to si postp NL < Quenya “sívë”, Sindarin “sui” essive case suffix

may be used to translate adjectives like “foolish”, “friendly”
similarly otharz adv, conj see “oth”
since ghâr prep HG < LOS “ghâra” only about time;
use with objects in accusative case
since (when) amilah pro NL, see “amil”, “ah” only about time;
only relative; see “milah” for question particle;
may be replaced with “ghâr”
since then zîgilah pro NL < “zîg” + “in” + “ah” (see corresponding articles) only about time; in Modern analytical style should be replaced with “lazil” or “ghâr zîgil”
since when? milah pro NL, see “mil”, “ah” only about time;
only interrogative (in questions); see “amilah” for relative counterpart;
in Modern analytical style should be replaced with “ghâr mil?”
slightly âzh adv NL clitic adverb of aspect
so zarzi pro see “za”, “irzi”
so zârz pro NL < “za” + “arz” (see corresponding articles)
so zîgirzi pro see “zîg”, “irzi”
so (…) as (…) zash (…) zash (…) expr see “zash”
so far zilu pro NL, “zil” (now) + allative case suffix “-u” only about time;
in Modern analytical style should be replaced with “zizil”
so long as zash rodharz zash expr see “zash”, “rodh”
so many zamak pro NL < “za” + “mak” (see corresponding articles)
so much zamak pro NL < “za” + “mak” (see corresponding articles)
so that zârz pro NL < “za” + “arz” (see corresponding articles)
so that zârz zamash expr see “zârz”, “zamash” analytical style
so … as … zash (…) (…)si expr see “zash”, “si”
so … as … zash (…) oth (…) expr see “zash”, “oth”
some mûd pro HG (“some”), probably from LOS, MB “mupsh” used as part of other indefinite pronouns and adverbs
some people haimûd pro NL, see “hai”, “mûd” only in Colloquial speech; use unanimated “ashmûd” in Standard Nûrlâm
somebody ashmûd pro NL, see “ash”, “mûd” Colloquial language has distinct word for “someone; somebody” (see “haimûd”)
somebody haimûd pro NL, see “hai”, “mûd” only in Colloquial speech; use unanimated “ashmûd” in Standard Nûrlâm
somebody else haisk pro NL, see “hai”, “isk” only in Colloquial speech; use unanimated “ashisk” in Standard Nûrlâm
somehow mûdarz pro NL, see “mûd”, “arz”
someone ashmûd pro NL, see “ash”, “mûd” Colloquial language has distinct word for “someone; somebody” (see “haimûd”)
someone haimûd pro NL, see “hai”, “mûd” only in Colloquial speech; use unanimated “ashmûd” in Standard Nûrlâm
someone else haisk pro NL, see “hai”, “isk” only in Colloquial speech; use unanimated “ashisk” in Standard Nûrlâm
something ashmûd pro NL, see “ash”, “mûd” Colloquial language has distinct word for “someone; somebody” (see “haimûd”)
something else ashisk pro NL, see “ash”, “isk”
sometimes ilmûd pro NL, see “il” and “mûd”
somewhere inmûd pro NL, see “in” and “mûd”
somewhy mûdûr pro NL, see “mûd”, “ûr”
soon uth adv NL < Gnomish “mu”, “mutha” (will, I am going to, I am about to) + LOS “gûth” (almost, nearly) usually have a tone of intention;
see also verb “pant-”
sooner hîsarzar adv NL < LOS “hîs” (adj.) (fast, quick, swift, soon, rathe, etc.) + adverb suffix “-arz” + comparative suffix “-ar” in expressions like “I'd rather…”;
not with meanings “quite”, “enough” (“He is rather big”)
still ad adv NL < LOS “rad” (now) see “rad”, used only with verbs ending with several consonants
still zizil conj see “zi”, “zil” about time
subsequently hîlarz adv see “hîl-”
such zâsh pro, adj, conj NL < “za” + “ash” (see corresponding articles)
surely durtarz adv see “durt”
surely rûzarz adv see “rûz”
than snû conj LOS < MB used with noun/pronouns in accusative case; the whole construction may be replaced with noun in genitive case
that zamash conj NL, see “za”, “mash”; compare with LOS “zamal” relative “that” in complex sentences
that zîg pro LOS < HG < EL “za” (this) + NL “tîg” (there); see corresponding articles
that is zîg kulâ expr see “zîg”, “kul-”
that is why zîgûr pro NL < “zîg” + “ûr” (see corresponding articles) lit. “for that”
that manner zîgirzi pro see “zîg”, “irzi”
that many zîgmak pro NL < “zîg” + “mak” (see corresponding articles)
that much zîgmak pro NL < “zîg” + “mak” (see corresponding articles)
that place zîgin pro NL < “zîg” + “in” (see corresponding articles)
that time zîgil pro NL < “za” + “il” (see corresponding articles) only about time, not used in conditions (“if … then …”)
that's why zazah pro NL < “za” + “-ah” (see corresponding articles) inserted between action and the result or consequences;
not about location
that's why zîgûr pro NL < “zîg” + “ûr” (see corresponding articles) lit. “for that”
thee am pro NL < Hurrian absolutive 2nd singular clitic “-m(ma)” Standard: 2nd person singular objective enclitic pronoun;
Colloquial: not used
them ul pro TK, CBS, LOTR, RI;
? Hurrian “-lla”
Objective case of 3rd person pronouns “tak”, “ulû” (they)
themselves îm pro NL < Quenya “immo” may be used as prefix “self-”
then dai conj DS
then la prep, adv LOS use with objects in accusative case
then zîgil pro NL < “za” + “il” (see corresponding articles) only about time, not used in conditions (“if … then …”)
thence zîgah pro NL < “zîg” + “-ah” (see corresponding articles) inserted between action and the result or consequences
thence zîgilah pro NL < “zîg” + “in” + “ah” (see corresponding articles) only about time; in Modern analytical style should be replaced with “lazil” or “ghâr zîgil”
thence zîginah pro NL < “zîg” + “in” + “ah” (see corresponding articles) only about location
thenceforth zîgilah pro NL < “zîg” + “in” + “ah” (see corresponding articles) only about time; in Modern analytical style should be replaced with “lazil” or “ghâr zîgil”
thenceforward zîgilah pro NL < “zîg” + “in” + “ah” (see corresponding articles) only about time; in Modern analytical style should be replaced with “lazil” or “ghâr zîgil”
there zîgin pro NL < “zîg” + “in” (see corresponding articles)
thereafter lazîg adv NL, see “la”, “zîg”
thereafter zîgilah pro NL < “zîg” + “in” + “ah” (see corresponding articles) only about time; in Modern analytical style should be replaced with “lazil” or “ghâr zîgil”
thereby zîgarz pro NL < “zîg” + “arz” (see corresponding articles)
thereby zîgirzi pro see “zîg”, “irzi”
therefore dai conj DS
therefore zazah pro NL < “za” + “-ah” (see corresponding articles) inserted between action and the result or consequences;
not about location
therefore zîgah pro NL < “zîg” + “-ah” (see corresponding articles) inserted between action and the result or consequences
therefrom zîginah pro NL < “zîg” + “in” + “ah” (see corresponding articles) only about location
thereto zîginu pro NL < “zîg” + “in” + “-u” (see corresponding articles) only about direction
these za pro EL, all major dialects; compare with Etym. “SI” In Standard Nûrlâm means both “this” and “these”; in Colloquial speech means only “this”, see “zaz” for “these”; often used as definite article “the”
these zaz pro EL “za” (this) only in Colloquial speech
these (people) zahai pro NL < “za” + “hai” (see corresponding articles) only in Colloquial speech
this za pro EL, all major dialects; compare with Etym. “SI” In Standard Nûrlâm means both “this” and “these”; in Colloquial speech means only “this”, see “zaz” for “these”; often used as definite article “the”
this far zinu pro NL < “za” + “in” + “u” (see corresponding articles) only about direction
this manner zarzi pro see “za”, “irzi”
this manner zârz pro NL < “za” + “arz” (see corresponding articles)
this place zin pro NL < “za” + “in” (see corresponding articles)
this time zil pro NL < “za” + “il” (see corresponding articles)
thither zîgilu pro NL < “zîg” + “in” + “-u” (see corresponding articles) only about time; in Modern analytical style should be replaced with “zi zîgil” or just “zi”
thither zîginu pro NL < “zîg” + “in” + “-u” (see corresponding articles) only about direction
those (people) zîghai pro NL < “zîg” + “hai” (see corresponding articles) only in Colloquial speech
though nar mikarzar zîgob expr see individual words lit. “not less of that”
though nân conj LOS < Quenya “nan” (but, on the contrary, on the other hand), “ono” introduces contrary ideas
through as postp LOS use with object in accusative case
through tuk postp LOS use with objects in instrumental case;
may be replaced with just instrumental case
through (use of) irzi postp LOS “irzi” (by) instrumental case suffix
through (use of) rzi postp LOS “irzi” (by) instrumental case suffix after vowel
thus zarzi pro see “za”, “irzi”
thus zârz pro NL < “za” + “arz” (see corresponding articles)
thus zîgirzi pro see “zîg”, “irzi”
till zi prep LOS (“until”) use with objects in accusative case or dependent clauses in past or future, but not present tense; with dependent clauses “amilu” is preferred

используется с существительными в винительном падеже или подчинённым предложением в прошедшем или будущем времени, но без отрицательной частицы; с подчинёнными предложениями лучше использовать “amilu”
time il n SV often used as suffix to make indefinite and relative pro-adverbs of time
to u postp TK, DBS, LOTR, OC; was used as preposition allative case suffix
to zu postp see “u” allative case suffix after vowel
to (somebody) zûr postp EL “ûr” dative case suffix after vowel
to (somebody) ûr postp EL, probably from Quenya dative ending “ur” dative case suffix
to (time) zi prep LOS (“until”) use with objects in accusative case or dependent clauses in past or future, but not present tense; with dependent clauses “amilu” is preferred

используется с существительными в винительном падеже или подчинённым предложением в прошедшем или будущем времени, но без отрицательной частицы; с подчинёнными предложениями лучше использовать “amilu”
to it zazu pro NL < “za” + “-u” (see corresponding articles) addition to subject
to that (place) zîginu pro NL < “zîg” + “in” + “-u” (see corresponding articles) only about direction
to that (time) zîgilu pro NL < “zîg” + “in” + “-u” (see corresponding articles) only about time; in Modern analytical style should be replaced with “zi zîgil” or just “zi”
to there zîginu pro NL < “zîg” + “in” + “-u” (see corresponding articles) only about direction
to this zazu pro NL < “za” + “-u” (see corresponding articles) addition to subject
to this place zinu pro NL < “za” + “in” + “u” (see corresponding articles) only about direction
to where aminu pro NL, see “amin”, “-u” only relative; see “minu” for question particle
to where? minu pro NL, see “amin”, “-u” only about location;
only interrogative (in questions); see “aminu” for relative counterpart
together sha adv TK, DBS, LOTR, OC, PE 17, VT 26 refers to verb, may be written separately after verb or as clitic marker of cooperative voice
together with sha postp, adv TK, DBS, LOTR, OC, PE 17, VT 26 Comitative case suffix; marks participants of collaborative action.
too shazârz conj, adv NL, lit. “with this manner”, see “sha” and “zârz” meanings “too” and “either” only in the end of the English phrase
too shuz conj NL < LOS “shum” (very much, too much) < MERP (big, great) < Albanian meanings “too” and “either” only in the end of the English phrase
totally ûk adv TK, CBS, LOTR, RI;
? Hurrian “-ok-” (fully, really)
clitic, aspect suffix
towards u postp TK, DBS, LOTR, OC; was used as preposition allative case suffix
towards zu postp see “u” allative case suffix after vowel
tribe hai suffix TK, CBS, AO, LOTR, UT;
? Adûnaic suffix “-lâi” (folk) < Quenya “lië” (people), Sindarin “lî”, Early Noldorin “lhai” (folk, host, people) < Primitive Elvish “LΔ;
compare also with Qenya “hos(se)”, Noldorin “hoth” (host, crowd) < Etym. “KHOTH” (to gather)
used in names of races as whole like “uruk-hai”, “olog-hai” etc.
un- nan prefix NL < Quenya “nancar” (to undo) prefix of cancelled action

префикс отмены действия
under lata prep EL, the word “tala” reversed or Etym. “LAD”, “LAT” (flat) use with objects in accusative case
unless ghung (…) nar (…) expr see “ghung”, “nar”
until zi prep LOS (“until”) use with objects in accusative case or dependent clauses in past or future, but not present tense; with dependent clauses “amilu” is preferred

используется с существительными в винительном падеже или подчинённым предложением в прошедшем или будущем времени, но без отрицательной частицы; с подчинёнными предложениями лучше использовать “amilu”
until (when) amilu pro NL, see “mil”, “-u” only about time;
only relative; see “amilu” for question particle;
may be replaced with “zi”
until now zilu pro NL, “zil” (now) + allative case suffix “-u” only about time;
in Modern analytical style should be replaced with “zizil”
until now zizil conj see “zi”, “zil” about time
until when? milu pro NL, see “mil”, “-u” only about time;
only interrogative (in questions); see “amilu” for relative counterpart;
in Modern analytical style should be replaced with “zi mil?”
up the (…) tala prep EL;
? probably from Etym. “TÂ, TAGH-” (high, lofty) or “TALAM” (floor, base) or “DAL” (flat)
use with objects in accusative case
upon u postp TK, DBS, LOTR, OC; was used as preposition allative case suffix
upon zu postp see “u” allative case suffix after vowel
us ak pro NL < ZB “-ak” (1st person inclusive clitic pronoun in absolutive case) 1st person plural objective enclitic pronoun, only in Standard language
used to ok adv NL < HG “okû”; compare with NL “gok” (flat, even) used as clitic adverb of aspect (habitual, iterative);
gains meaning ”used to” (regular action in the past, not familiriaty with) only together with verb in past tense
using irzi postp LOS “irzi” (by) instrumental case suffix
using rzi postp LOS “irzi” (by) instrumental case suffix after vowel
usually ok adv NL < HG “okû”; compare with NL “gok” (flat, even) used as clitic adverb of aspect (habitual, iterative);
gains meaning ”used to” (regular action in the past, not familiriaty with) only together with verb in past tense
versus bug prep SV use with objects in Accusative case
via irzi postp LOS “irzi” (by) instrumental case suffix
via rzi postp LOS “irzi” (by) instrumental case suffix after vowel
vice versa rambiskir expr NL, see “ramb”, “isk”, “ir” lit. “on the other side”
what amash pro LOS (“what”) < EL “amal”/”mal” (where) + TK “ash” only relative pronoun; see “mash” for question particle
what for? mûr pro NL, see “mash”, “ûr” only interrogative (in questions); see “amûr” for relative counterpart
what's up? mar expr LOS (LUG) in Standard Nûrlâm used as prefix of interrogative mood
what? mash pro LOS (“what?”) < EL “amal”/”mal” (where) + TK “ash” only interrogative pronoun (in questions); see “amash” for relative counterpart
whatever mashkon pro NL, see “mash”, “kon” only with interrogative (questions) and dubitative moods
when amil pro NL, see “mash”, “il” only relative; see “mil” for question particle
when? mil pro NL, see “mash”, “il” only interrogative (in questions); see “amil” for relative counterpart
whence aminah pro NL, see “amin”, “ah” 1) after location
2) between action and result
3) between reason and consequences
whence zîgah pro NL < “zîg” + “-ah” (see corresponding articles) inserted between action and the result or consequences
whence? minah pro NL, see “mash”, “in”, “ah” only about location;
only interrogative (in questions); see “aminah” for relative counterpart
whenever milkon pro NL, see “mil”, “kon” only with interrogative (questions) and dubitative moods
where amin pro NL, see “mash”, “in” only relative; see “min” for question particle
where from? minah pro NL, see “mash”, “in”, “ah” only about location;
only interrogative (in questions); see “aminah” for relative counterpart
where? min pro NL, see “mash”, “in” only interrogative (in questions); see “amin” for relative counterpart
whereas zasha hugor expr NL, see “za”, “sha”, “hug”, “or”
whereas ûstug za expr NL, see “ûst-”, “za”
whereas ûstug zamash expr NL, see “ûst-”, “zamash”
whereby amasha pro, conj NL, see “amash”, “sha”
whereby amashirzi pro, conj NL, see “amash”, “irzi”
wherefore amûr pro NL, see “mash”, “ûr” only relative; “mûr” for question particle
whereto aminu pro NL, see “amin”, “-u” only relative; see “minu” for question particle
wherever minkon pro NL, see “min”, “kon” only with interrogative (questions) and dubitative moods
whether maikon pro NL, see “mai”, “kon” only in Colloquial speech;
only with interrogative (questions) and dubitative moods
whether makon pro NL, see “mash”, “kon” only with interrogative (questions) and dubitative moods
whether mashkon pro NL, see “mash”, “kon” only with interrogative (questions) and dubitative moods
whether (…) or (…) makon (…) ogh (…) expr see “makon”, “ogh”
whether (…) or (…) mashkon (…) ogh (…) expr see “makon”, “ogh”
whether (…) or (…) ogh (…) ogh (…) expr LOS (SN) “ogh” (or)
which amai pro NL < LOS “mash” + TK “hai” (see corresponding articles) only in colloquial speeh;
only relative pronoun; see “mai” for question particle
which amash pro LOS (“what”) < EL “amal”/”mal” (where) + TK “ash” only relative pronoun; see “mash” for question particle
which? mai pro NL < LOS “mash” + TK “hai” (see corresponding articles) only in colloquial speeh;
only interrogative pronoun (in questions); see “amai” for relative counterpart
which? mash pro LOS (“what?”) < EL “amal”/”mal” (where) + TK “ash” only interrogative pronoun (in questions); see “amash” for relative counterpart
whichever maikon pro NL, see “mai”, “kon” only in Colloquial speech;
only with interrogative (questions) and dubitative moods
whichever mashkon pro NL, see “mash”, “kon” only with interrogative (questions) and dubitative moods
while kusn conj, prep LOS < SV or MB use with objects in accusative case
while nân conj LOS < Quenya “nan” (but, on the contrary, on the other hand), “ono” introduces contrary ideas
whither aminu pro NL, see “amin”, “-u” only relative; see “minu” for question particle
whither? minu pro NL, see “amin”, “-u” only about location;
only interrogative (in questions); see “aminu” for relative counterpart
who amai pro NL < LOS “mash” + TK “hai” (see corresponding articles) only in colloquial speeh;
only relative pronoun; see “mai” for question particle
who amash pro LOS (“what”) < EL “amal”/”mal” (where) + TK “ash” only relative pronoun; see “mash” for question particle
who? mai pro NL < LOS “mash” + TK “hai” (see corresponding articles) only in colloquial speeh;
only interrogative pronoun (in questions); see “amai” for relative counterpart
who? mash pro LOS (“what?”) < EL “amal”/”mal” (where) + TK “ash” only interrogative pronoun (in questions); see “amash” for relative counterpart
whoever maikon pro NL, see “mai”, “kon” only in Colloquial speech;
only with interrogative (questions) and dubitative moods
wholly ûk adv TK, CBS, LOTR, RI;
? Hurrian “-ok-” (fully, really)
clitic, aspect suffix
why amûr pro NL, see “mash”, “ûr” only relative; “mûr” for question particle
why else iskûr pro NL, see “isk” and “ûr”
why ever mûrkon pro NL, see “mûr”, “kon” only with interrogative (questions) and dubitative moods
why? mûr pro NL, see “mash”, “ûr” only interrogative (in questions); see “amûr” for relative counterpart
will ub suffix AN, probably from Quenya future tense suffix “-uva”, Old Sindarin “-ubā” (remote future suffix) future tense suffix
will (do smth.) soon uth adv NL < Gnomish “mu”, “mutha” (will, I am going to, I am about to) + LOS “gûth” (almost, nearly) usually have a tone of intention;
see also verb “pant-”
with sha postp, adv TK, DBS, LOTR, OC, PE 17, VT 26 Comitative case suffix; marks participants of collaborative action.
with this in mind zasha hugor expr NL, see “za”, “sha”, “hug”, “or”
with use of irzi postp LOS “irzi” (by) instrumental case suffix
with use of rzi postp LOS “irzi” (by) instrumental case suffix after vowel
with which amasha pro, conj NL, see “amash”, “sha”
within ishi postp TK, CBS, LOTR, RI;
Quenya locative case ending “-ssë”
Illative case suffix. Motion inside place or object
within shi postp see “ishi” Illative case suffix after vowel. Motion inside place, object or static presence inside one place
within (place) nâd adv, postp NL, merging MERP “nâdar” (amongst) < Albanian with Primitive Elvish “ndē̆” (inside) < Etym. (AC) “(N)DI”;
see also “nod”
used standalone as adverb or with objects in inessive or genitive case;
may be replaced with just inessive case (preferable);
expressions like “to the inside” and “from inside” are translated with just Illative and Elative cases correspondingly
within (time) furn prep NL < Etym. “BORÓN” (to last, endure), compare with Quenya “vor”, “vora”, “vorë”, “voro”, etc.

Similarity with English “for” is accidental
used with objects in accusative case

только о времени
without shanar postp see “sha”, “nar” only in analytical forms
woman niz n, suffix NL < Quenya “nís” (noun “woman”) “feminizer” suffix as “-ess” or “she-”
yep akh expr LOS literally means “agree”, used as equivalent of English affirmative response “yes”

букв. “согласен”
yes akh expr LOS literally means “agree”, used as equivalent of English affirmative response “yes”

букв. “согласен”
yet ad adv NL < LOS “rad” (now) see “rad”, used only with verbs ending with several consonants
yet marzkon pro NL, see “marz”, “kon” only with interrogative (questions) and dubitative moods
yet nar mikarzar zîgob expr see individual words lit. “not less of that”
yet zilu pro NL, “zil” (now) + allative case suffix “-u” only about time;
in Modern analytical style should be replaced with “zizil”
yet zizil conj see “zi”, “zil” about time
you af pro NL < Hurrian absolutive 2nd plural clitic “-f(fa)” 2nd person plural objective enclitic pronoun, only in Standard language
you am pro NL < Hurrian absolutive 2nd singular clitic “-m(ma)” Standard: 2nd person singular objective enclitic pronoun;
Colloquial: not used
yourself îm pro NL < Quenya “immo” may be used as prefix “self-”
lexicon/auxiliary.txt · Last modified: 2022/11/07 00:59 (external edit)