Interjection is a word or expression that expresses a spontaneous feeling or reaction and occurs on its own and may break the flow of proper sentence. This group of words is diverse and ranges from words that may have meaning in proper sentence to absolutely meaningless accidental sounds (e.g. cough). Most common functions of interjections include:

  • exclamations (like English “oops”, “wow”);
  • curses and profanities (like “damn!”);
  • greetings (e.g. “hi!”, “bye!”);
  • responses (like “okay”, “hmm”, “huh?”)
  • filler words (words that have meaning but being used to break the flow of speech absolutely unnecessary)

Most of these applications are called parenthesis is syntax.

In sum, this lexical category includes words belonging only to it, as well as other parts of speech (verbs, adverbs, nouns) when used as interjections.

Interjections in Tolkien's Black Speech

The following unique interjections occur in The Lord of the Rings book throughout conversations of orcs:

Interjection Source Meaning1)
ai LOTR, TT, Book 3, Chapter III LOS, HG: hey!
ar LOTR, ROTK, Book 6, Chapter II
garn LOTR, TT, Book 4, Chapter X and ROTK, Book 6, Chapter II LOS: “go on!”, “come on!”
hai LOTR, TT, Book 4, Chapter X
harri TH, Chapter VI and LOTR, TT, Book 4, Chapter X
hoi TH, Chapter VI and LOTR, TT, Book 4, Chapter X
hola LOTR, TT, Book 4, Chapter X
nar LOTR, TT, Book 4, Chapter X AN: transformed into negative particle “no”, “not”, which was later used in Neo Black Speech (including Nûrlâm) both as stand-alone word and prefix/clitic
sha Orcish curse the meaning was changed into preposition “with” in later translations of Orcish curse by Tolkien
skai Orcish curse TK: “gah!”
fans (SV, RE): “damn!”, “curse!”, “shit!”
ya TH, Chapter VI and LOTR, TT, Book 4, Chapter X
yoi LOTR, TT, Book 4, Chapter X

Please note that meanings of these words were extrapolated by fans, not by Tolkien himself, who left them untranslated.

There are also some universal interjections attested, like “ah”, “shh”, “grr”.

Interjections in Neo Black Speech

The following interjections were added in various Neo Black Speech dialects:

Interjection Dialect Translation
akh LOS “agree”, “yes”, “yep”, “aye”;
in LOS “akh-” is proper verb with meaning “agree”, which is used instead of English affirmative interjection/particle “yes”
bhog HG > LOS “all right!”, “okay”, “well”;
in LOS “bhogad” is used as interjection, while “bhog” is proper adjective/adverb (“good”, “well”);
proper word in Nûrlâm, still may be used as exclamation, but not as pure interjection
brosh SV, all major dialects hi!, hey!, hello!
ferk SV SV: “damn!”
ZA: “son of the bitch!”;
not used in Nûrlâm
gâkh AN, all major dialects “let it be”, “may it be so”, “well!”;
became used as modal verb in Nûrlâm
hûz SV > HG, ZA “look out!”, “watch out!”
mar LOS (LUG) “huh?”, “what's up?”;
normally verb's prefix of interrogative mood, becomes an interjection when used stand-alone
ne SV “nope”, “no”;
not in Nûrlâm, see “nar”
urk LOS damn!
zâgîra SV > LOS “okay”, “O.K.”;
not in Nûrlâm
mostly fan-made
interjections.txt · Last modified: 2023/01/02 13:44 by morgoth