Conjunction is a part of speech that connects individual words, phrases, clauses and sentences. However other parts of speech such as adpositions, pro-forms, adverbs (called conjunctive adverbs in that case) and even participles and whole phrases) can carry the same function. For example Nûrlâm's “la” is a preposition in “Taskâtuz la ânsh” = “He came after the dawn”, but is a conjunction in “Taskâtuz la ûzh tulguzâ” = “He came after the Sun rose”.

There are two big groups of conjunctions:

  1. Coordinating. Join two or more items of equal importance.
  2. Subordinating. Join dependent clauses to the main (independent) clause into complex sentence. They are mostly adverbial clauses.

Each group has simple one-word conjunctions and complex phrases consisting of two conjunctions or other parts of speech, either following each other or split (e.g. one part joins one clause and the second one joins the other). Some conjunctions may belong to several categories depending on their usage.

Many conjunctions may combine two sequential simple sentences: they stay separated by stop punctuation mark instead of joining into complex sentence with clauses separated by conjunction and comma. This may happen in dialogues, where two sentences are uttered by different persons:
– I don't like fruits.
Neither do I, meat is much better!

Coordinating conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions combine two or more words or phrases into one syntactical unit, or two independent clauses into compound sentence. Coordinating conjunctions do not belong to any syntactical category and do not belong to any of clauses they combine.

Cumulative conjunctions

Cumulative conjunctions add or combine non-contrasting items or ideas, even if both of them are negative.

English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
shuz conj NL < LOS “shum” (very much, too much) < SV (big, great) Many orcs hate elves, I hate them too ⇒ Mak uruk mokû golug-hai, damokul shuz
shazârz adv NL, lit. “with this manner”, TK “sha”, EL “za” + LOS “-arz” Dwarves also hate elves ⇒ Gazat-hai mokû golug-hai shazârz
and agh conj TK (LOTR, RI) Shagrat and Gorbag talked in the tower ⇒ Shagrat agh Gorbag shugbuzû lugumor
This sentence has two subjects joined by a conjunction “and”. However it may be analyzed as simplified compound sentence.
besides rambarz adv NL < ZA “ramb” (side, flank) Athelas is a healing herb besides a pig forage = Arnpâth kulâ ash shartug barth rambarz bûbgazhk
both* za agh zîg lit. “this and that” Troll-woman offered two gifts: sword and stallion. Man refused both ⇒ Ologniz thrâhuzâ krul thrân: ash lag agh ash lûkh. Tark narbhuzâ za agh zîg
zîg agh isk lit. “that and another” What you prefer: man flesh or hobbit flesh? – Both are good ⇒ Mash fibrogb tarkâps ogh kudugâps? – Zîg agh isk bhog
either* ûgh pro lit. “each” I don't like them either ⇒ Danarbrogbul ûgh
Here “either” refers to persons referred by pronoun “them”
kon adv lit. “any” I don't like them either ⇒ Danarbrogbul kon
same as above
shuz conj lit. “also” I don't like them either ⇒ Danarbrogbul shuz
and here “either” refers to speaker and the listener(s)
zîgir pro lit. “on top of that” Athelas is a forage for pigs, moreover it's healing herb ⇒ Arnpâth (kulâ) bûbgazhk zîgir ta(kul) shartug barth
makarzar zîgob expr lit. “more of that” They defeated hordes of orcs and moreover a Balrog ⇒ Takfaikuz hurm urukob agh makarzar zîgob ash Balrog
nor1) agh … nar conj lit. “and not” Shagrat didn't kill a dragon, nor did Gorbag ⇒ Shagrat nardoguzâ ash lûg, agh Gorbag nar
only if there was negation before
plus gint v NL, imperative from verb “gint-” (to add, increase, append, join) < merging DS “gin” (new) with Qenya “yanta-” (to add to, enlarge, increase, augment) and with Gnomish “intha-” (to join to, add, increase, add to) and “gantha” (more) This sword is sharp and light, plus it glows when orcs are nearby ⇒ Za lag kulâ maig agh sta, gint taghâzh amil uruk mush
whereby amasha pro NL, lit. “with which” < LOS “mash” (what?) and TK “sha” (together with) Master made a law whereby it's forbidden to call him Sauron ⇒ Goth krampuzâ ash mogsh amasha bhaudaga bugdutan Sauron

* - at the end of the phrase

English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
along with (this) shâs conj NL, literal translation < TK “sha” (together with) and LOS “as” (across, through) Some men from the South fought along with the orcs ⇒ Mûd tark hardob maukuzû shâs uruk-hai
as much … as … zash mak … zash … expr literal translation Take as much gold as you can carry! ⇒ Snab zash mak lûr zash gipâsh thragut!
both … and … agh … agh … conj TK “agh” (and), lit. “and … and …” Both Shagrat and Gorbag didn't want to serve their master ⇒ Agh Shagrat agh Gorbag narhizuzû bûrtut ash goth takob
in addition (to) gintautor (…-u) expr They got some loot in addition to the money received for joining the war ⇒ Taksnabuz mûd raun gintautor draugûru nântaga gaidautûr ghûthum
in sum ginturmor expr In sum, their proposition just says “fuck you all” ⇒ Ginturmor, thrâhurm takob gashnâ tug “htolafûk”
neither (of) … nar (…)ob expr lit. “none of” Neither of them wanted to serve the master ⇒ Nar takob (nar)hizizû bûrtut gothum
neither (verb) (subject) (subject) nar(verb) … shuz expr lit. “didn't … too” Gorbag didn't want to serve his master. Neither did Shagrat ⇒ Gorbag narhizuzâ bûrtut goth tab. Shagrat narhizuzâ shuz
(subject) shuz nar(verb) … expr lit. “also didn't …” ⇒ Shagrat shuz narhizuzâ
neither … nor … nar … nar … conj lit. “not … not” Neither Shagrat nor Gorbag wanted to serve their master ⇒ Nar Shagrat nar Gorbag (nar)hizuzû bûrtut ash goth takob
on top of that zîgir pro NL “zîg” (that) + “ir” (on, on top of) They defeated hordes of orcs. On top of that they also killed a Balrog. ⇒ Takfaikuz hurm urukob. Zîgir takdoguz ash Balrog shuz

Alternative conjunctions

Alternative conjunctions present an option or choice of items or ideas, one of them may be negative.

English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
or ogh conj LOS (SN) < TK (LOTR, RI) “agh” + English “or” Would you like meat or vegetables? ⇒ Fihizulg mash, âps ogh barth?
English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
either … or … ogh … ogh … conj lit. “or … or …” Either the Ring will be destroyed or the World will burn ⇒ Ogh nazgum kubâ shadat ogh thard ghâshub
… (one time, once), and … (another time) … asharz … ilisk expr lit. “once and another time” One time he is chill and furious another ⇒ Takul borzûrz asharz agh hûr ilisk
… (now, today), and … (next time, then) … zil … la expr lit. “now and later” Now they are telling us “We are the family”, next time they will grudge a maggoty bread for us ⇒ Tak gashnak zil “Dak rank”, la takrarkub ash zombûrz mazg dakûr
whether … or … makon … ogh … expr lit. “any … or …” I don't care whether you steal or buy it – bring it to me! ⇒ Danargirkh makon fi orskulgan ogh fitûzulgan – thrakan dazûr!
mashkon … ogh … expr lit. “whatever/whichever … or … ” Whether you find a ring or other trinket on prisoners, they belong to the Master ⇒ Mashkon gigimbulg ash nazg ogh isk nîd, takaud gothûr

Adversative conjunctions

Adversative conjunctions help to express contrast or exceptions of ideas.

English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
although nân conj LOS < Quenya “nan” (but, on the contrary, on the other hand), “ono” Although I don'like elves personally, they are good on taste ⇒ Nân danarbrogb golug-hai shrasi, tak nîr thaikat
though Orcs are superior in combat, not in the forests though ⇒ Uruk-hai kulû bhogaz dogror, nar tauzor nân
but I don't like dwarves, but I hate elves more ⇒ Danarbrogb gazat-hai, nân damok golug-hai makar
but ap conj NL < Quenya “apa” Gorbag is my friend, but loot is more precious ⇒ Gorbag shauk, ap raun turkûrzar2)
even yal conj HG Even the spirits are afraid ⇒ Yal hûb (kulû) uglaga
however marzkon pro NL We defeated them, however with great loss ⇒ Dakfaikuzul marzkon mak dogauksha
yet He fell off the cliff yet survived ⇒ Talûmp fip bo marzkon takibruz
instead* sazgishi n + postp NL < Sindarin “sad” (place) merged with LOS “stazg” (place) < SV + TK “ishi” (in) The Fellowship could go through Rohan Gap but they went through Moria instead ⇒ Shaukurm pâshulgâ ukhut Lûkhuzg Zaghirzi tuk ap takukhuz Ronkbûrzirzi tuk sazgishi
nevertheless nar mikarzar zîgob expr lit. “not less of that” The wizard knew that Moria was dangerous but agreed to go that way nevertheless ⇒ Saunorum îstuzâ zamash Ronkbûrz kuzâ razgûrz nân nar mikarzar zîgob akhuzâ ukhut zîg mûl
nonetheless He didn't like them but invited nonetheless ⇒ Tanarbrogbuzul ap nar mikarzar zîgob tabroskuzul
otherwise iskarz pro NL < “isk”, merging Quenya “exë” with LOS “izg” (I) The White Wizard thinks otherwise ⇒ Saunorninkum ûsâ iskarz
arzisk pro Attack of the orcs rallied dwarves, elves and men, otherwise they would fought each other ⇒ Dîsum urukob gaiduzâ gazat-hai, golug-hai agh tark-hai, arzisk takmaukulg ash isk
English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
in place of inor (…)ob expr NL, “in” (place) + “or” (in) + “ob” (of) He put some garbage in place of treasure ⇒ Tagaithuz mûd glod inor mirnob
usually literally about place or location
instead of Shagrat will be on guard instead of Gorbag ⇒ Shagrat tudubâ inor Gorbagob
about people and their actions
on the contrary rambiskir expr NL, “on the other side” Athelas didn't help his wounds, on the contrary it was poisonous to orc ⇒ Arnpâth narbhokuzâ tab rulûr, rambiskir ta kuz holmûrz urukûr
on the other hand nalgiskir expr NL, literal translation I hate elves, on the other hand they are delicious ⇒ Damok golug-hai, dak thaikûrz nalgiskir

Gradational conjunctions

Gradational conjunctions take part in comparisons of equal, not dependent items or ideas. They may be similar to adversative and comparison conjunctions but with less contrast.

English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
rather3) hîsarzar adv NL “hîs” (adj.) (fast, quick, swift, soon, rathe, etc.) + adv. suffix “-arz” + comparative suffix “-ar” I would rather go ⇒ Da ukhulg hîsarzar
than snû conj LOS < MB My axe is bigger than yours! ⇒ Pulkdab dauzar snû fib
English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
it is not that … but … nar kogarz … ap hîsarzar expr lit. “not truly a … but rather …” It's not that orcs didn't want to fight, but they didn't want to serve their lord ⇒ Nar kogarz uruk narhizû maukut ap hîsarzar taknarhiz bûrtut goth takob
not (really, exactly) … but (rather) …
not (so) much … as … nar zamak … zîgmaksi … expr lit. “not so much … as that much …” We were on the road. Well, it's not so much of a road as path ⇒ Dak kuz mûlumir. Bhog, ta nar zash zamak ash mûl(ob) zîgmaksi ash mong
not only/just … but (also) … nar tug … ap (shazârz) … expr literal translation I am not only smart and beautiful but also humble ⇒ Dakul nar tug tunkûrz agh nîr ap shazârz zaud
not only/just … but … too nar tug … ap … shuz expr literal translation And not just the men, but the women and the children, too ⇒ Agh nar tug nor ap niz agh khind shuz.
rather … than … hîsarzar … snû … adv literal translation I would rather eat maggoty bread than elvish food ⇒ Hîsarzar dathrokhulg zombûrz mazg snû golugûrz throk

Clarifying conjunctions

Clarifying conjunctions provide more detailed, precise or clear description of items or ideas. May be similar to alternative conjunctions.

English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
actually kogarz adv NL < ZA “kog-” (to speak, tell truth) Actually, they couldn't fly to Mordor on Eagles ⇒ Kogarz taknarpâshulg skoirut Uzgbûrzu shorir
indeed Bolg is indeed strong ⇒ Bolg kulâ pol kogarz
really Men flesh is really delicious! ⇒ Tarkâps kulâ kogarz thaikûrz!
truly The ring is truly powerful! ⇒ Nazgum kulâ balûrz kogarz
certainly rûzarz adv LOS “rûz” (sure) (adj) < HG Bolg was certainly a strongest orc ⇒ Bolg rûzarz kuz ash uruk bolgaz
durtarz adv LOS “durt” (adj) (sure, certain) ⇒ Bolg kuz ash uruk bolgaz durtarz
especially zasharz adv NL, similarly to HG < SV “shumza” (very much this), but with LOS (SN) “sharz” (very) Don't anyone in, especially with weapons! ⇒ Nardabh haikon shiksut, zasharz yaksha
particularly Salted meat is particularly good ⇒ Kaishaga âps kulâ nîr zasharz
specifically He told specifically about capturing that tower ⇒ Tagashnuz gus dikaut zîg lug zasharz
namely îzarz adv NL “îz” (name) (n) Orcs, namely Shagrat and Gorbag, want freedom from the Dark Lord ⇒ Uruk-hai, Shagrat and Gorbag îzarz, hizû sligurm Gothbûrzbo
precisely aktarz adv NL < ULK “aktum” (accuracy, precision, marksmanship) I was going to do precisely this ⇒ Dakrampuzuth aktarz za
English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
for sure rûzarz adv LOS “rûz” (sure) (adj) < HG I will help you for sure ⇒ Dabhokub gizûr rûzarz
durtarz adv LOS “durt” (adj) (sure, certain) He was for sure strong ⇒ Takuz durtarz bolg
in fact kogurmirzi expr lit. “by fact” Bilbo's ring was in fact Sauron's ⇒ Nazg Bilbob kuz Sauronob kogurmirzi
in other words ghîshirzi isk,
expr lit. “by other words” In current circumstances we cannot accept your proposition, in other words – fuck you! ⇒ Shi gugsh radûrz daknarpâsh bhûlut thrâhurm gib, ghîshiskirzi, htolaf!
it means za/zîg/amash idrâ expr lit. “this/that/what means” The rising sun is red, it means the blood was shed at night ⇒ Ûzhum tulgug karn, za idrâ zamash ghorum smurbâkuzâ shi fugh
or rather ogh hîsarzar expr literal translation They gave to dwarves some unwanted weapons or rather useless tools ⇒ Takthroguz gazatûr mûd narnargag yak ogh hîsarzar kram narushdûrz
that is zîg kulâ expr literal translation He is Balrog, that is fallen Maia ⇒ Ta Balrog zîg kulâ hûb lûmpuga
id est (i.e.)
so to speak gashnat zârz expr lit. “to say so” He was, so to speak, an embodiment of hope ⇒ Takuz, gashnat zârz, ash turm khardurmob
that's to say
to be exact kulat aktûrz expr literal translation He was killed by servants of Sauron, to be exact, by Nazgûl ⇒ Tadogâkuz snagarzi Sauronob, kulat aktûrz, Nazgûlirzi
to be precise
without doubt shanar hush / hush shanar expr literally Without doubt a Balrog can defeat a human ⇒ Shanar hush ash Balrog pâsh faikut ash tark

Subordinating conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions often introduce adverbial clauses, and thus many of them strictly speaking belong to relative pronouns and pro-adverbs (see Pro-forms). Similar functions may be carried by clauses with infinitives and gerundives without auxiliary words. Subordinating conjunctions are the part of dependent clause.

Descriptive conjunctions

Descriptive conjunctions are in fact relative pronouns. They take the role of determiners in the sentence.

English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
insomuch zamaku pro “za” (this) + “mak” (much) + “-u” (to) He hates elves insomuch that he can't even eat them ⇒ Tamok golug-hai zamaku zamash yal tanarpâsh throkhutul
such zâsh pro “za” + “ash”, lit. “this one” He is such a terrible person! ⇒ Ta zâsh shrabhau!
that zamash pro “za” + “amash”, lit. “this, which …” The house that Snaga built ⇒ Ozdum zamash Snaga tumbuz
what amash pro “am-” (relative pronoun prefix) + “ash” (one) You reap what you sow ⇒ Fisrunt amash fisruth
which amash, amai pro as you can see, there is no special word for “which” in Nûrlâm; “what” or “who” are used instead I don't know which way to go ⇒ Danarîst amash mongirzi ukhat
Which one of you did this? ⇒ Amai ash gib krampuz za?
who amai pro “am-” (relative pronoun prefix) + “-hai” (people) He, who hides in shadows ⇒ Ta amai fauthâ bathor
English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
no more … (than …) nar makarzar … snû … expr literal translation He fights no more ⇒ Tamauk nar makarzar = Tanarmauk makarzar ⇒ He doesn't fight anymore
She has no more brain than a hen ⇒ Nabrus nar makarzar tunk snû ash porg
so many, so much zamak pro “za” (this) + “mak” (much) The pot cooked so much food that it flooded the village ⇒ Khûzum throbuzâ zamak throk zamash talauduz fulzum

Adverbial conjunctions of time

English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
after la prep LOS Wash your hands after shitting ⇒ Yol fib nalg la bagaut
before ik prep LOS Run before I kill you! ⇒ Irz ik dadogam!
finally -ûk suffix, adv TK, clitic adverb of aspect I have finally won ⇒ Dafaikuzûk 4)
gorzarz adv DS “gorz-” (to end, finish) I have finally won ⇒ Dafaikuz gorzarz
just -îs suffix, adv NL < LOS “îs-” (to begin), clitic adverb of aspect He have just came in ⇒ Tashiskuzîs
lately shiladil adv HG “lad” (late) (adj) Lately he is been avoiding people ⇒ Shiladil tanarl hai
shîlad adv ⇒ Tanarl hai shîlad
once nokh adv LOS < HG Wormtongue was once a man of Rohan ⇒ Zomlâm kuz nokh ash nor Lûkhuzgob
asharz adv, num TK “ash” (one) Once upon the time in Middle-Earth ⇒ Asharz Noduzgor
since ghâr prep HG < LOS “ghâra” (from) I haven't seen him since Monday ⇒ Danarkinuzan ghâr shilârsh
“ghâr” is used primarily with events described in one word
amilah pro NL, “amil” (when) + “-ah” (from), “whence” I haven't seen him since he left the city ⇒ Danarkinuzan amilah taranguz goim
soon -uth suffix, adv NL < Gnomish “mu”, “mutha” (will, I am going to, I am about to); clitic adverb of aspect The Sun will rise soon ⇒ Ûzh tulgubâtuth
still zizil adv NL, lit. “until now” Snaga still builds the house ⇒ Snaga tumbâ ozdum zizil
yet Snaga didn't finished the house yet ⇒ Snaga nargorzuzâ ozdum zizil
then zîgil pro NL, lit. “that time”, from SV “il” (time) and NL “zîg” (that) The hobbit put on the ring then disappeared ⇒ Kudugum tupuzâ nazgum zîgil bhanuz
till zi prep LOS Fight till the last drop of blood! ⇒ Mauk zi lîmptîl ghorob!
until Do not return until you finish your quest! ⇒ Narkruskât zi figorzub fib sogurm
when amil pro NL I will return when Sun rises ⇒ Dakruskâtub amil ûzh tulgubâ
whenever milkon pro NL, “mil” (when?) + “kon” (any) You may come whenever you want ⇒ Fi ilf skâtut milkon finargub
while kusn conj LOS < SV He was singing a song while going home ⇒ Talashuz ash laush kusn ukhuz mokhu
English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
at last gorzarz adv lit. “finally”, DS “gorz-” (to end, finish) After the long journey they reached Gondor at last ⇒ La rodh ukhaut takbarluz Gunduzg gorzarz
at the same time shi zash il expr literal translation He hates elves, but loves their tast at the same time ⇒ Tamok golug-hai ap shi zash il tabrogb shaubum takob
before long -uth adv lit. “soon”; NL < Gnomish “mu”, “mutha” (will, I am going to, I am about to); clitic adverb of aspect Gondor will fall before long ⇒ Gunduzg zadubâtuth
by the time (when) ik ilum (amil) expr lit. “before the time” The enemies will be already in Gondor by the time he reach it ⇒ Kuth kubû Gunduzgor dok ik ilum amil tabarlub za
every time ilûgh pro literal translation He tells the same joke every time we meet him ⇒ Tagashn zash hokum ilûgh dakhogan
for (a) long (time) expr furn rodharz literal translation I haven't seen him for a long time ⇒ Danarkinuzan furn rodharz
furn ilrodh
long before zi rodharz/ilrodh ik expr lit. “by/until long before”, “by long time before” This elf started fighting long before you was born ⇒ Za golug îsuzâ maukut zi rodharz ik finozduz
meanwhile shi zil/zîgil expr “at this time”, “at that time”, “at now”, “at then” Hobbits were eating salted pork meanwhile ents were fighting Saruman's orcs ⇒ Kudug throkhuzû bûbâps kaishaga shi zîgil ornog-hai taduzû uruk-hai Sharkûb
next (time) (shi) (il)ab expr NL < DS prefix “ab-” (after, behind, following) “What to do next?” ⇒ “Mash krampat abarzar”5) = “Mash krampat shi ilab6)
no sooner than naruthar snû expr literal translation No sooner had they escaped Wargs than they were captured by goblins ⇒ Takdikâkuz urukirzi naruthar snû takirzuz hîrgah
now that zil amil expr lit. “now when”, may be written as one word Now that Gorthaur won, orcs may sleep peacefully ⇒ Zil amil Gorthaur faikuzâ, uruk-hai ilfû lorut borzarz

Adverbial conjunctions of place

English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
whence (from where) aminah pro elative case from “amin” (where) Return to the hole whence you came! ⇒ Kruskât gronkumishi aminah fiskât!
where amin pro NL, relative prefix “am-” + “in” (place) In the Land of Mordor where the Shadows lie ⇒ Uzgbûrzor amin bathum kâtû
wherever minkon pro NL, “min” (where?) + “kon” (any) The Great Eye will find you wherever you may run ⇒ Bhahontum gimbubâtam minkon fi ilfulg irzut
whither (whereto, to where) aminu pro allative case from “amin” (where) I don't know where to go (to) ⇒ Danarîst aminu ukhat

Adverbial conjunctions of comparison

Essive case postposition “-si” and adpositions “zash” and “oth” may all mean “as”. The difference is that “-si” and “oth” are used only when there is only one object of comparison or with second object (reference, to compare with). Essive case ending “-si” is used only with one word long objects, while “oth” may precede the longer phrase. And “zash” precedes the first object of comparison (what to compare). “Oth” is extrapolated from personal name “Othrod” interpreted as “As-a-Mountain”, but this may be wrong and the word may change it's meaning in the future. So two-object comparison may be done with “zash … zash …” or “zash … …-si” (the last only if second object is expressed with one word). Also “oth” means any similarity, while “zash” means identity, equivalence or at least very strong similarity.

English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
as oth prep dubious from TK, AO, BOLT, PN “Othrod”, Etym. “OS-” (about, around) When in Mordor, do as the Uruk-hai do ⇒ Amil Uzgbûrzor, kramp oth Uruk-hai krampû
-si postp NL < Quenya “sívë”, Sindarin “sui” As your friend I advice you to not go there ⇒ Shauktabsi dathrâham narukhut zîgin
like oth prep see above Troll runs like the Sun is going to rise soon ⇒ Olog khîgâ oth ûzhum tulgubuth/tulgatuth
-si postp see above He runs like a rabbit ⇒ Ta irz ash tapsi
likewise otharz adv see “oth” Uglúk belched and Snaga did likewise ⇒ Uglûk rugduzâ agh Snaga krampuzâ otharz
similarly Elves do not take orcs as prisoners, similarly humans kill them instead ⇒ Golug-hai nardikû uruk glûrsi, otharz tark-hai dogul sazgishi
so zash prep SV Yes, do so ⇒ Akh, kramp zash
zârz pro NL, adverb from “za” (this) He is so happy! ⇒ Takul glaz zârz
English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
as … as … zash … …si expr SV “zash” (same, adj)
NL “-si” (-like) < Quenya “sívë”, Sindarin “sui”
NL “oth”, dubious from TK PN “Othrod”, Etym. “OS-” (about, around)
He is as fast as the rabbit ⇒ Takul zash hîs tapumsi
zash … oth … expr He was as furious as impetuous storm at that battle ⇒ Takul zash hûr oth raumgor shi zîg dogr
zash … zash … expr He is not as smart as he thinks ⇒ Tanarkul zash tunkûrz zash ta ûs
as if ghungsi conj NL, LOS < SV “ghung” (if) + NL “-si” (-like) You speak so, as if you have already defeated the dragon ⇒ Figashn zârz ghungsi fifaikuz lûgum dok
as though
as much … as … zash mak … zash … expr literal translation Grab as much gold as you can carry! ⇒ Rop zash mak lûr zash gipâsh kolut!
just as … so … (too) zash … zârz … (shuz) expr lit. “same … so …” Just as body needs exercises to stay healthy, so does the mind ⇒ Zash kraur bolkâ tailurm zârz agh samd
zash … zârz (agh) …

Adverbial conjunctions of reason

These conjunctions start clause describing the cause of action in the main sentence.

English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
because taitaga …(-irzi) pastp lit. “caused (by)” < NL “tait-” (to cause) < Gnomish “caith” + Quenya “tyar-” < Etym. “KYAR” He died because of your fault ⇒ Taghuruz taitaga saugfibirzi
(mostly in expression “because of”, when cause can be described in one word)
zîgah zamash expr lit. “from that that”, “thence that” People think I'm insane because I am frowning all the time ⇒ Hai îstû zamash da trîn zîgâh zamash dalork ilûk
for zârzamarz conj NL, “zârz” (so, thus, hereby) + “amarz” (how), lit. “thus is how” Forgive me, father, for I have eat your breakfast ⇒ Gont dazûr, krank, zârzamarz dathrokhuz ashrokilfib
since ghâr prep, conj HG < LOS “ghâra” Since you are already here, help yourself! ⇒ Bhok îmûr ghâr gi(kul) zin dok
why (a)mûr pro NL I don't why they have chosen this way ⇒ Danarîst amûr tak gobhuz za mûl
English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
that's why zîgûr pro NL, “for that” He was shot by the elves, that's why he doesn't like them ⇒ Tabauzâkuz golugirzi zîgûr tanarbrogbul
zazah pro NL, “from this” ⇒ Tabauzâkuz golugirzi zazah tanarbrogbul

Adverbial conjunctions of consequence

These conjunctions mark clause describing the effect of action in the main sentence.

English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
accordingly mbursharz adv LOS “mbursh-” (to match, fit) We haven't been paid for a long, accordingly we will do nothing ⇒ Dakbhagâkuz rodharz, mbursharz daknarkrampub ashkon
consequently laskâturmsi expr NL < LOS “la” (after) + “skât-” (to come) + “si” (as), lit. “as the result” Volcanic ashes sent by the Dark Lord shielded the orcs from the Sun, consequently they could march towards Gondor faster ⇒ Hîsht urunshob hîstaga gothbûrzirzi lazguzû uruk-hai ûzhbo, laskâturmsi takpâshuz thûkhut Gunduzgu hîsarzar
hence zazah pro NL, “za” + Elative case suffix “-ah”, lit. “from this” All buildings in Gondor are built of stone, hence it's name (Stone City) ⇒ Tumbambûk Gunduzgor tumbâkuzû gundob, zazah zab îz
zârz pro NL (so, thus, hereby) I hereby sentence you to exile ⇒ Zârz danûmpam hîgurmu
zarzi pro NL, lit. “by this” So you have chosen death! ⇒ Zarzi figobhuz gurzum
subsequently hîlarz adv LOS “hîl-” (to follow) < Quenya “hilya” We captured them and subsequently tortured prisoners to gain the information ⇒ Dakdikuzul agh hîlarz dakbalguz glûr nântat îsturm
zîgarz pro NL < “zîg” (that) He stood thus for almost an hour ⇒ Tabinuz zîgarz furn ash sib gûth
zîgirzi pro NL, lit. “by that” Hobbit signed the contract, thereby got the right on 1/14th of profits ⇒ Kudug tanuzâ gîzdum, zîgirzi brashuzâ forsh ashir nukhantûrz raunob
therefore dai conj DS (therefore, then, in that case) I think, therefore I am ⇒ Da ûs, dai da kul
zîgah pro NL, lit. “from that” The Fellowship noticed Saruman's spies and therefore took another way ⇒ Shaukurm kunduzâ nûsh Sharkûb agh zîgah lautuzâ isk mong
zazah pro NL, lit. “from this” There are elves in this forest, therefore you should be careful ⇒ Golug-hai kulû tauzazor, zazah fimaug kulut gîrd
English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
by that zîgarz pro NL < “zîg” (that) Azog carved his name on the Thrór's head and called dwarves beggars, and by that ignited the war between Dwarves and Orcs ⇒ Azog drabuzâ yaztab kazir Thrôrob agh bugduzâ gazat-hai hasauk, agh zîgarz stakuzâ ghûthum gazat-hairi agh uruk-hairi
zîgirzi pro NL, lit. “by that” He shot their leader and by that brought the victory ⇒ Tabauzuz dughal takob agh zîgirzi thraguzâ faikum
(that's) how (za/zîg/zin) amarz expr lit.: (this/that/here) how And that's how I met your mother ⇒ Agh zîg amarz dahoguz krankniz fib

Adverbial conjunctions of condition

English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
if ghung conj LOS < SV < SV “ghug” (to be, live, exist) Run if you see a Balrog ⇒ Irz ghung fikinulg ash Balrog
when amil pro NL, relative “when” When in Mordor, do as the Uruk-hai do ⇒ Amil Uzgbûrzor, kramp oth Uruk-hai krampû
English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
if … then … ghung … dai … expr literal translation If there will be elves then kill them ⇒ Ghung golug kulg zîgin dai dogul!

Adverbial conjunctions of purpose

Purpose is usually described by clauses with gerundive or infinitive.

English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
for -at gerundive TK, RI, analysis from PE 17 These boots are made for walking ⇒ Za hobh krampâkuzû ukhat
in order to Valar must sink Númenor in order to save the human race ⇒ Balmâgz maugû drûshut Dhûnshuzg bharnat tark-hai

Adverbial conjunctions of cession/drawback

See also adversative conjunctions.

English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
anyway konarz pro, adv NL, “kon” (any) + “arz” (adverb suffix) He warned hobbits that Cirith Ungol is dangerous but they went there anyway ⇒ Tarazguz kudug zamash Ungrik kul razgûrz, ap takukhuz zîginu konarz
despite narhonug …u expr lit. “not looking towards” Hobbits went to Cirith Ungol despite the warning ⇒ Kudug ukhuzû Ungriku narhonug razgumu
puthug …u expr lit. “spitting towards” They reached Orodruin despite all struggle ⇒ Takbarluz Urundûmp puthug u tadurmûk
English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
after all (this) la (za) ûk expr lit. “after this all” They had a victory after all the struggle ⇒ Takfaikuz la tadurmûk
even if
even though
yal ghung conj lit. “even if” I would not fight the Balrog even if you offer me all the money ⇒ Danartadulg Balrogum yal ghung fithrâhulgiz draugumûk
despite (the fact that),
in spite of,
regardless of that
narhonug zîgu expr lit. “not looking towards that” Orodruin was erupting, regardless of that fact it was cold nearby ⇒ Urundûmp zgabuzâ, narhonug zîgu kuzâ grazarz mush
with all (this) zasha ûk expr lit. “with this all” With all his rough speech, he is a nice person deeply in heart ⇒ Zasha lâmpîgtabûk, ta kul shranîr nodor dhun

Adverbial conjunctions of several functions

Many adverbial conjunctions of time and place may be used also for reason and consequences. And some conjunctions have several functions in English but translated differently into Nûrlâm.

English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
as (similarity) si postp NL < Quenya “sívë”, Sindarin “sui” He is brave as a lion ⇒ Ta for ash rorsi
as (simultaneous, time) kusn prep see “while” The signs started to glow as the moon appeared on the sky ⇒ Tan ghâzhuzûtîs kusn shil thakuzâtûk nûtir
hence (place) zinah pro, adv lit. “from this place” I'm going hence because you party is boring ⇒ Da ukh zinah taitaga birtgibirzi frâd
hence (time) zilah pro, adv lit. “from this time” Our journey will take a year hence ⇒ Gaburm dakob frunubâ ash lau zilah
hence (reason/result) zazah pro, conj lit. “from this” Mithril is very rare, hence very expensive ⇒ Thîribir kulâ raih sharz, zazah turkûrz sharz
just (recently, immediately) -îs7) adv, suffix NL < LOS “îs-” (to begin) Somebody just started to knock at the door ⇒ Ashmûd tuhuz(ât)îs pandu
-ûn8) adv, suffix NL < LOS “ûn” (new) < HG Somebody just knocked at the door ⇒ Ashmûd tuhuz(ât)ûn pandu
just (a little, barely, probably) -âzh adv, suffix NL Open the gate just a little! ⇒ Badzâzh hûm!
just (only, simply, exactly) tug adv EL I'm just a modest worker ⇒ Dakul tug ash bulal zaud
since (reason/time) ghâr prep HG < LOS “ghâra” (from) Since you have finished your task, here is one new for you! ⇒ Ghâr figorzuz bulfib, pot ash (bul)gin fizûr
amilah9) pro lit. “from time” I haven't eaten since yesterday ⇒ Danarthrokhuz amilah ârshik
so zârz pro Why do you speak so? ⇒ Mûr figashn zârz?
zarzi pro lit. “by this” So you have chosen death ⇒ Zârzi figobhuz gurzum
so (comparison) zash pro She is so beautiful! ⇒ Na zash nîr!
still zizil conj lit. “until this time” Stone trolls are still standing where Bilbo met them ⇒ Gundolog binû zizil amin Bilbo taduzâtul
rad conj LOS (“now”) I'm still loving you ⇒ Dabrogbamrad
then (consequence) dai conj DS If you want be healthy then exercise regularly ⇒ Ghung fihiz kulut môglûrz dai tailok
then (at that time) zîgil pro, adv lit. “that time” We didn't know about this then ⇒ Daknarîstuz gus za zîgil
rîg adv LOS “rad” (now) + SV “atîg” (there) It doesn't seem important back then ⇒ Za narbozduz horm rîg
then (next in time) la adv LOS And then there was silence ⇒ Agh la kuzâ ghilurm
lârz adv LOS “la” + adverb ending “-arz” And then there were none ⇒ Agh lârz nan irnuzû
thence (time) zîgilah pro lit. “from that time” They have returned a year thence ⇒ Tak kruskâtuz ash lau zîgilah
thence (place) zîginah pro lit. “from that place” They travelled to Misty Mountains and thence to Lothlórien ⇒ Tak haruz Rodu Hizgûrz agh zîginah Uzglûrzu
thence (consequence) zîgah pro lit. “from that” You're lazy, thence I will not pay you ⇒ Gi frûz, zîgah danarbhagubaf
when (time) amil pro SV “il” (time) He was already dead when I came ⇒ Takuz gûrz dok amil daskâtuz
when (condition) When in Mordor, do as the Uruk-hai do ⇒ Amil Uzgbûrzor, kramp oth Uruk-hai krampû
whence (place) (a)minah pro lit. “from where” Whence does he come? ⇒ Minah taskâtuz?
whence (reason, cause) zîgah pro lit. “from that” This job is dangerous, whence the high reward ⇒ Za bul razgûrz, zîgah târ raunum
while (time) kusn conj SV Everyone died while he was wandering ⇒ Ashûgh matuz kusn tagabuz
while (contrast) nân conj LOS < Quenya “nan” (but, on the contrary, on the other hand), “ono” While Dark Lord is revered, he is not liked by the orcs ⇒ Nân Gothbûrz gorthâkâ, tanarkul brogbaga urukirzi
yet (time) rad adv LOS (“now”) The ring wasn't found yet ⇒ Nazgum nargimbâkuzâ rad
zilu pro lit. “to this time” Why the food is not here yet? ⇒ Mûr throk narkulâ zin zilu?
zizil conj, adv lit. “until this time” Orcs didn't conquer the world yet ⇒ Uruk-hai narpaikuzû thard zizil
yet (contrast) marzkon pro “however” The wizard fell into the abyss yet survived ⇒ Saunorum lûmpuzâ skâmbumishi marzkon kibruzâ
English Nûrlâm Part of speech Etymology Example
as far as (place) Their land stretches as far as the sea ⇒ Uzg takob sîga zash baubarz zash kârshum
as far as (time) zash baubarz zash conj literal translation The war goes as far back as 2793 of the Third Age ⇒ Ghûthum ukhâ krut zash baubarz zash lau krul mink agh udug tusk agh krithnuk agh krig kûrmob krigûrz
as far as (gradation, descriptive) zash mak zash lit. “as much as” As far as I know, Balrogs do not have real wings ⇒ Zash mak zash da îst, Balrog narbrusû skoir kog
as far as (concerning, regarding) zamash gus conj lit. “that about” As far as I'm concerned, this plan is a mistake ⇒ Zamash gus da, (da ûs) za panturm kulâ ash saug
as long as (time) zash rodharz zash conj literal translation You can stay at our home as long as you wish ⇒ Gipâsh irnut mokhor dakob zash rodharz zash gi irm
so long as (place) more like “so long as” Grishnákh's arms are so long as he all ⇒ Bazg Grishnâkhob kulû zash rodharz zash ta ûk
as long as (condition) ghung conj lit. “if” You are allowed to enter as long as you leave your weapon outside ⇒ Gidabhâk shiskut ghung girangub yak gib lût

See also

without neither
pun on “Amicus Plato, sed magis arnica Veritas”
not as synonym for “quite” in expressions like “he is rather big”
ambiguous, may mean “I have defeated all”
lit.: What to do further?
lit.: What to do at the next time?
about unfinished actions
about finished actions
see whence
conjunctions.txt · Last modified: 2023/10/02 17:23 by morgoth