Appendix A: Prefixes and Suffixes

This is not full list of suffixes. Some prepositions are missed here. Examples will be found in square brackets [ ]


1. prefixed to an interrogative makes it into a relative (EL) [mal = where?, amal = where (as in, where the shadows lie)]
2. third person pronoun prefix (RE) [azagh = he of the mountain pass; agondor = he of Gondor]
im- self- (UNF) [imskûtum = self-defense]
mar- prefixed to verbs in questions (LUG)
nar- negation, non-, un-
nâr- anti-, un- (ULK)


-ag passive verb suffix UNF < HORN “âk” [uruk azaguzat = orc was killed]
-aga indefinite passive participle UNF < AA [akraga = being drunk]
-al occupation(like English -er) [hoitat = to hunt, hoital = hunter; zâgîrat = to joke, zâgîral = joker, jester] SV
-ar snû more (comparative ending) [gothûrzar snû = more powerful than]
-arz common Black Speech adverb ending LOS
-as across (prep) LOS
1. verb infinitive TK [gimbat = to find]
2. third person singular verb ending
-atâr able, knowing; similar to -al suffix [dûshatâr = wizard, mage; from dush – magic] SV
-az most (comparative ending) [gothûrzaz = most powerful] LOS
-âzh partially, incompletely UNF
-bo off (preposition) [kulat-bo = to be off]
-dhog near, next to [Orodruin-dhog, = near Orodruin.]
-dur arch- (lit. “big/head of”) [dûshatârdur = archimage] ULK
-ghâra from (case suffix) LOS [Mordor-ghâra = from Mordor]
-hai people of TK (BS and AO) [urûk-hai = the urûk-people]
-irzi by (case suffix) LOS
-ishi in (preposition) TK [Mordor-ishi = in Mordor]
-izg I or me (used as a suffix, not as a 1st person singular pronoun) [kul-izg = I am]
-lob feminine word ending [Shelob] – deprecated
-ob of (preposition/case suffix) EL [Mordor-ob = of Mordor]
-og profession or occupation as -al but with superative meaning ULK (< TK Azog = Killer) [gashnog = linguist, compare with gashnal = talker]
-or at (preposition) LOS [Orthanc-or = at Orthanc]
-ri agh between (preposition) LOS [Rohan-ri agh Gondor-ri = between Rohan and Gondor]
-shi at (time) case suffix LOS [bûrz-shi = at night]
-thu beyond (preposition) LOS [Minas Morgul-thu = beyond Minas Morgul]
-tuk through (preposition) LOS [Ru-tuk, through the hall]
1. Noun plural after consonant LL [Nazgu = rings] **note that the words for peoples, like uruk, ilid, Nazgul, gazat, etc., do not have plurals.
2. to (preposition) [Mordor-u = “to Mordor”; but note that “u bagronk”, meaning “to the cesspool” is poor orkish grammar in DBS.
3. Dative case suffix (The Second Nazgul)
-ub verb future tense suffix AN [gimbub = will find, gimbubut = they will find]
-ufa perfect passive participle UNF < HORN [akrufa = having been drunk]
-ug present active participle EL [azug = killing]
-uga past participle (participle II) EL [azuga = killed]
-ugum gerund, forming noun from verbs, process UNF [Brogb-izg akugum = I like cutting]
-ugz perfect active participle UNF [uruk azugz golug = orc having killed an elf]
-ûk all, completely, collective plural TK [thrakatulûk = to bring them all]
-ul them TK [gimbatul = to find them]
-um common noun forming suffix (mostly abstract) TK, LL [burzum = darkness, nâkhum = greediness]
-ûr for (case suffix) EL [durub-ûr = for the ruler.]
-ûrz a common BS adjective-forming suffix EL [matûrz = mortal]
-ûrzum forming abstract noun meaning characteristic, attribute or property UNF [ufûrzum = fearfulness]
-ut third person plural verb ending [gimbut = they find, gimbubut = they will find] EL
-uz verb past tense suffix LOS [gimbuz = found, gimbuzat = he found]
-z noun plural after vowel. EL [goi = city, goiz = cities]
-zan in the name of [Morgoth-zan = in the name of Morgoth]
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