• Lesson I – Background information
• Lesson II – Black Speech Sounds and Pronunciation
• Lesson III – Nouns
• Lesson IV – Verbs: Infinitive and Present Tense
• Lesson V – Verbs: Future Tense
• Lesson VI – Adjectives and Word Order
• Lesson VII – Pre- and Postpositions, Noun Cases, Phrase Verbs
• Lesson VIII – Verbs: Past Tense
• Lesson IX – Numbers
• Lesson X – Pronouns and Commands (Imperatives)
• * Lesson XII – Comparisons
• * Lesson XIII – Suffix Order and Indirect Objects
• * Lesson XIV – Questions
• * Lesson XV – Participles and Passive Voice
• * Lesson XVI – Conditional and Subjunctive Moods
• Appendix A: Prefixes and Suffixes
• Appendix B: Grammar quick overview
• Appendix C: Measures, Directions, Army Ranks
• Appendix D: List Of Abbreviations
• Appendix E: Canonical Tolkien's Black Speech
* Lesson XI – Adverbs, Gerund
LOS dictionary has a lack of adverbs. But you can create them easily by adding suffix -arz to any word stem. If the source word is an adjective with -ûrz suffix, then this suffix shall be changed to -arz. For example, adverb made from skrithûrz (cruel) is “skritharz” = cruelly.
I haven't seen any rules about word order in sentences with adverbs. But, as general rule says, they shall be placed after the words they modify, i.e. after the verbs, or in the end of sentence as in English. Here is an example:
Notice: these sentences are the very good example of translating from context. The words “orc” and “elf” have no plural number form in Black Speech. But the suffix -ut in azubut tells us about large quantity of orcs, and the plural form of adjective “globûrzu” hints that there is more than one elf to be killed.
Gerund in Black Speech is like a noun meaning process. It's formed by adding suffix -ugum. Despite similarity to nouns Gerund doesn't have plural form. I'll give you a lot of examples but my advice is to use infinitive instead. Gerund in Black Speech doesn't have perfect or passive forms, so they must be replaced with dependent clauses.
* Word glu- plus -ugum suffix made one long û. See Lesson XV for more information on Passive Voice.
** I have to invent new words. The word “way” was already in dictionary but it was the same as conjuction “or”, so I've decided to add suffix -um to ogh for clearance. The word râz (“different”) is from Svartiska and Horngoth.
*** This is an example of translating passive gerund of English sentence as infinitive in Black Speech (literally “He likes to be whipped...”).
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