Уроки


Приложение Б – Краткий свод правил

Здесь представлены таблицы основных правил грамматики диалекта LOS. В Svartiska используются другие правила, которые можно найти в Английско-орочьем словаре.

Существительные

Ед. число Суффикс мн. ч.  Коллективное множественное число
персона
shara (человек), mau (воин)

shara turu (много людей), mau krâk (пять воинов)
-ûk, -hai
shara-hai (люди), maûk (все воины)
оканчивается на согласный
duf (нож), hont (глаз)
-u
dufu (ножи), hontu (глаза)
-ûk
dufûk (все ножи)
goiûk (все города)
оканчивается на гласный
goi (город)
-z
goiz (города)

Suffix order

1 2 3 4 5
род  артикль  падеж  послеслог  число


Прилагательные

Образование формы множественного числа

Единственное число  Суффикс множественного числа  Примеры
оканчивается на согл. -u ûsumu bûrzu (тёмные мысли)
оканчивается на гл. -z urûk kûz (старые орки)

Сравнение

Степень сравнения  Суффикс Примеры
положительная   gothûrz (мощный), kû (старый)
сравнительная -ar gothûrzar snû (более мощный чем, мощнее чем), kûar (старее)
превосходная -az gothûrzaz (самый мощный, мощнейший), kûaz (старейший)


Глаголы

Время 1-е, 2-е лицо 3-е лицо, ед. ч. 3-е лицо, мн. ч.
Инфинитив -at -at -at
Настоящее -at -ut
Будущее -ub -ubat -ubut
Прошедшее -uz -uzat -uzut


Причастия

Вид Суффикс
действительный страдательный
несовершенное I -ug -aga
совершенное I -ugz -ufa
причастие II
-uga


Порядок слов

1. Подлежащее  2. Определение  3. Сказуемое  4. Прямое дополнение  5. Косвенное дополнение  6. Обстоятельство 
сущ. прил. гл. сущ.
мест.
сущ. (+ предл.)
мест. (+ предл.)
нар.
сущ. + предл.

Примечание: если подлежащее является местоимением, оно ставится после к глагола как суффикс.


Пример

Великий воин Углах принёс вчера волшебное кольцо своему повелителю
2 1 3 6 4 5
Uglakh mau bûbhosh thrakuz nazg dushûrz gothtabu ârshlût


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Комментарии

Scatha  2014-09-24, 04:01:03

Has anyone here ever tried the lessons? I think some of them may need some corrections and updates.  Let me know your thoughts.


bjornaxen  2016-06-08, 09:43:39

The Swedish LARP-orcish Svartiska was not really created by a single LARP-group but by the community of orc-larpers where different groups created different dialects.


bjornaxen  2017-12-15, 00:47:08

On pronunciation

There is an orc name that begins with y - Yagul - in The War of the Ring (The History of Middle Earth, vol. 8 )

I think Tolkien pronounce Mordor in Elvish, it is after all an Elvish name meaning Black land in Sindarin (or "shadows" in Quenya). It has nothing to do with pronunciation of the Black Speech.

And what about the sounds in the excercise: -qu- in "throqu-" and sr- in "srinkh-"? Especially -qu- seems out of place. Why not spell it kv or kw?


Un4givenOrc  2017-12-16, 10:01:39
bjornaxen wrote:

And what about the sounds in the excercise: -qu- in "throqu-" and sr- in "srinkh-"?

Yes, there as some issues with qu, specially when next letter is also u. Could be also spelled like Q. It appears only in words borrowed from elvish languages. I will replace it with something else if I would create new dialect.

I think there is nothing special with sr, for me it's easier to say than thr (thrakatulat).


bjornaxen  2017-12-23, 02:02:28

Does comparative and superlative adjectives, and adverbs mark plural?

The dark tower - lugbûrz; the darkest tower - lugbûrzaz; the darkest towers - lugbûrzazu

urukû ghâshuzat hîzarz lug "the old orc quickly burned the tower"; urukûz ghâshuzut hîzarzu lug "the old orcs quickly burned the tower"
---
edit 1. I saw that the adverb is not agreeing in number so: urukfuz ghâshuzut hîzarz lug
---
edit 2. I saw that I somehow confused the adjectives - this i now corrected.


Un4givenOrc  2017-12-23, 15:41:51

I think adverbs do not have plural form. Adjectives do in any form


bjornaxen  2017-12-25, 21:08:42

There are two collective plural, -hai and -ûk. In contrast to the ordinary plural these can be used with people and races. So we have uruk-hai (the orc people) as the most famous example. And then in the lessons (IV) there is an example of the -ûk ending used with  sharkû (old man) > sharkûk "all old men". So both the collective plurals can be used with people and races but what is the difference between them. What does sharkû-hai mean "all the old people" or maybe "the society of old men" or is it equivalent to sharkûk? Or is it just gibberish.


bjornaxen  2018-01-01, 16:47:30

In lesson XIII on suffix order, verbs collective #6 two endings are given, -ûk and -âzh. The -âzh ending is used with a verb 'ufubulâzh' (will frighten them slightly). I cannot find this -âzh in the lessons or in the wordlists (there is "azh (conj, HORN) "also").

It seems to mean "slightly" but then it is not a collective. Confusing


Un4givenOrc  2018-01-09, 13:27:04
bjornaxen wrote:

n the lessons (IV) there is an example of the -ûk ending used with  sharkû (old man) > sharkûk "all old men". So both the collective plurals can be used with people and races but what is the difference between them. What does sharkû-hai mean "all the old people" or maybe "the society of old men" or is it equivalent to sharkûk? Or is it just gibberish.

I think it's Scatha's mistake.
I don't like interpretation of -hai as collective plural suffix nor simply as "folk", "people of" etc. However I can't offer better one.

bjornaxen wrote:

n lesson XIII on suffix order, verbs collective #6 two endings are given, -ûk and -âzh. The -âzh ending is used with a verb 'ufubulâzh' (will frighten them slightly). I cannot find this -âzh in the lessons or in the wordlists (there is "azh (conj, HORN) "also").

I've added this shortly before my HDD crashed. Online version of dictionary is not updated still.
Here -uuk and -aazh are something like verb's aspect (perfect and "partial" respectively). Interpretation of "-uuk" as "completely", "fully" is taken from A. Nemirovsky's analysis



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