Lessons


* Lesson XI – Adverbs, Gerund

This and following lessons marked with asterisk * are written by me. They are based on suffix table, some comments from The Land Of Shadow's forum or were made from scratch.

Adverbs

LOS dictionary has a lack of adverbs. But you can create them easily by adding suffix -arz to any word stem. If the source word is an adjective with -ûrz suffix, then this suffix shall be changed to -arz. For example, adverb made from skrithûrz (cruel) is “skritharz” = cruelly.

I haven't seen any rules about word order in sentences with adverbs. But, as general rule says, they shall be placed after the words they modify, i.e. after the verbs, or in the end of sentence as in English. Here is an example:

Orcs will quickly kill the stupid elves
Urûk azubut hîsarz golug globûrzu*
or
Urûk azubut golug globûrzu hîsarz*

Notice: these sentences are the very good example of translating from context. The words “orc” and “elf” have no plural number form in Black Speech. But the suffix -ut in azubut tells us about large quantity of orcs, and the plural form of adjective “globûrzu” hints that there is more than one elf to be killed.


Gerund

Gerund in Black Speech is like a noun meaning process. It's formed by adding suffix -ugum. Despite similarity to nouns Gerund doesn't have plural form. I'll give you a lot of examples but my advice is to use infinitive instead. Gerund in Black Speech doesn't have perfect or passive forms, so they must be replaced with dependent clauses.

Examples

Glûgum narkulat lâthuga tul*
Pissing is not allowed here!

Îst-izg galgakh oghumu râz zaûgum-ob golug-hai**
I know 13 different ways of cooking elves

Gor-tab kulat azugum
His job is killing

Za shapat bolkat dûthugum
This sword needs cleaning

Uruk gashnuzut hoitugum-gus akashuga-hai
Orcs spoke about hunting hobbits

Gathrok duluglab ukhugum-ik u tauz golugûrz
Prepare your weapon before going to Elven forests

Brogbat-ta kulat thupuga pulum-kusn***
He likes being whipped during sex

* Word glu- plus -ugum suffix made one long û. See Lesson XV for more information on Passive Voice.

** I have to invent new words. The word “way” was already in dictionary but it was the same as conjuction “or”, so I've decided to add suffix -um to ogh for clearance. The word râz (“different”) is from Svartiska and Horngoth.

*** This is an example of translating passive gerund of English sentence as infinitive in Black Speech (literally “He likes to be whipped...”).



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Comments

Scatha  2014-09-24, 04:01:03

Has anyone here ever tried the lessons? I think some of them may need some corrections and updates.  Let me know your thoughts.


bjornaxen  2016-06-08, 09:43:39

The Swedish LARP-orcish Svartiska was not really created by a single LARP-group but by the community of orc-larpers where different groups created different dialects.


bjornaxen  2017-12-15, 00:47:08

On pronunciation

There is an orc name that begins with y - Yagul - in The War of the Ring (The History of Middle Earth, vol. 8 )

I think Tolkien pronounce Mordor in Elvish, it is after all an Elvish name meaning Black land in Sindarin (or "shadows" in Quenya). It has nothing to do with pronunciation of the Black Speech.

And what about the sounds in the excercise: -qu- in "throqu-" and sr- in "srinkh-"? Especially -qu- seems out of place. Why not spell it kv or kw?


Un4givenOrc  2017-12-16, 10:01:39
bjornaxen wrote:

And what about the sounds in the excercise: -qu- in "throqu-" and sr- in "srinkh-"?

Yes, there as some issues with qu, specially when next letter is also u. Could be also spelled like Q. It appears only in words borrowed from elvish languages. I will replace it with something else if I would create new dialect.

I think there is nothing special with sr, for me it's easier to say than thr (thrakatulat).


bjornaxen  2017-12-23, 02:02:28

Does comparative and superlative adjectives, and adverbs mark plural?

The dark tower - lugbûrz; the darkest tower - lugbûrzaz; the darkest towers - lugbûrzazu

urukû ghâshuzat hîzarz lug "the old orc quickly burned the tower"; urukûz ghâshuzut hîzarzu lug "the old orcs quickly burned the tower"
---
edit 1. I saw that the adverb is not agreeing in number so: urukfuz ghâshuzut hîzarz lug
---
edit 2. I saw that I somehow confused the adjectives - this i now corrected.


Un4givenOrc  2017-12-23, 15:41:51

I think adverbs do not have plural form. Adjectives do in any form


bjornaxen  2017-12-25, 21:08:42

There are two collective plural, -hai and -ûk. In contrast to the ordinary plural these can be used with people and races. So we have uruk-hai (the orc people) as the most famous example. And then in the lessons (IV) there is an example of the -ûk ending used with  sharkû (old man) > sharkûk "all old men". So both the collective plurals can be used with people and races but what is the difference between them. What does sharkû-hai mean "all the old people" or maybe "the society of old men" or is it equivalent to sharkûk? Or is it just gibberish.


bjornaxen  2018-01-01, 16:47:30

In lesson XIII on suffix order, verbs collective #6 two endings are given, -ûk and -âzh. The -âzh ending is used with a verb 'ufubulâzh' (will frighten them slightly). I cannot find this -âzh in the lessons or in the wordlists (there is "azh (conj, HORN) "also").

It seems to mean "slightly" but then it is not a collective. Confusing


Un4givenOrc  2018-01-09, 13:27:04
bjornaxen wrote:

n the lessons (IV) there is an example of the -ûk ending used with  sharkû (old man) > sharkûk "all old men". So both the collective plurals can be used with people and races but what is the difference between them. What does sharkû-hai mean "all the old people" or maybe "the society of old men" or is it equivalent to sharkûk? Or is it just gibberish.

I think it's Scatha's mistake.
I don't like interpretation of -hai as collective plural suffix nor simply as "folk", "people of" etc. However I can't offer better one.

bjornaxen wrote:

n lesson XIII on suffix order, verbs collective #6 two endings are given, -ûk and -âzh. The -âzh ending is used with a verb 'ufubulâzh' (will frighten them slightly). I cannot find this -âzh in the lessons or in the wordlists (there is "azh (conj, HORN) "also").

I've added this shortly before my HDD crashed. Online version of dictionary is not updated still.
Here -uuk and -aazh are something like verb's aspect (perfect and "partial" respectively). Interpretation of "-uuk" as "completely", "fully" is taken from A. Nemirovsky's analysis



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