Topic: New words

How does one introduce new words? I have coined these word's (for Svartiska but could be used in other dialects): okh "knee" (from  Quenya "occa"); kahosh "liver" (derivative prefix ka- + "hosh" guts"), gât- "to lie (down)" (from Quenya caita-) [I know that the last one is kât- in LoS also from Q. caita-].

Re: New words

I will move this topic to "Black Speech talks" section 'cause it already has some words offerings.

"okh" also similar to MERP's "okat" (to crawl), that's nice!
"gât-" already meaning "punish" in Svartiska, confusing a little

Re: New words

Hi again. I missed that gat- is "punish" in Svartiska. I suppose kat- is better then. gat- both were coined for my Zhabûri where the initial unvoiced plosives of Elvish words becomes voiced in line with Q/PE tur- > BS dur(b)-.

I also coined the word for Svariska kaskût "mercy" from prefix ka- + skût "shield". And the verb dik- "part", "depart" from Primitiv Elvish nek  (part, deprive, separate, divide).

I suppose you could use the nouns krâsh (LoS) or sâhd (Horn) "part" and add a verb suffix to them instead of "dik-".

Re: New words

By the way, what do you think about such prefixes like:
de- (meaning "separating", "dividing", "splitting", like yours depart, decompose, demolish etc.);
en- (meaning "in", as in encounter, entrance);
re- (mean. "back", "again" etc., like re-invent, resemble, retire etc.);

should there be prefixes in Black Speech too, or should they be translated as postpositions?

Re: New words

First we should distinguish between between grammatical and derivative affixes. The prefixes you present here are derivative. Svartiska has a few derivative affixes. But are you really asking whether there only ought to be derivative suffixes or prefixes too?

In zhâburi A (my first version of the language) I used both pre- and suffixes but for Zhâburi B my idea was to only use suffixes. But then I made the analysis of the words uruk, olog and oghor as being constructed by a mono syllabic stem with a prefixed duplication of the stem vowel, so: ruk > uruk; log > olog >; ghor > oghor.

Read more here: … log-oghor/

These are listed by Adragoor for Svartiska

-at    Creates verbs from nouns, e.g. ghâsh “fire” > ghâshat “to burn”, “to fire”
-urz    Creates adjectives from nouns, e.g. ghâsh “fire” > ghâshurz “hot”
-um    Creates nouns of adjectives, e.g. burz “dark” > burzum “darkness”
-atâr    Creates agents or job titles, e.g. ush “combat” > ushatâr “warrior”

Then there is the prefix ga- which I learned from the one who introduces me to Svartiska. And then there are a some that I analysed that seems to actually function as derivative prefixes but are not listed as such:

mi-    creates nouns or alternative nouns gûl "wraith" > migûl "mist"
ka-    Creates alternative nouns dar “house” > kadar “tent”

Re: New words

Yes, I'm speaking about derivational affixes which modifies only word's meaning. I'm for using only suffixes for inflection.

I have never noticed prefix ga- before. There are very few words starting with ga- in Svartiska dictionary, so I'm wondering what does it mean?

Re: New words

yes they are very few if ant in the dictionary. But Svartiska is not a well recorded language and there is alot subgroup rules. Adragoor's grammar is an attempt to bring several different grammars together. I have added some additional ones that I know off in my own summary. Especially regarding the verb.

The ga- prefix just gives a verb a different meaning like the ka- prefix for nouns. They are probably related. And one can wonder if there is a clear line between nouns and verbs here. Throk "food", > throk- "to eat"; gathrokat "to cook/make food"; gathrokatâr "chef". Maybe gathrok could mean "prepared food" but I haven't heard it be used .

The creation of the Svartiska is not very systematic and new words are coined by different persons in different ways and most often by just taking a word or sound and give it a meaning. Sometimes by combining two or more words. A very orcish way I would say. So Svartiska is a very orcish language but not like Saurons lingua franca of darkness that I imagine that the Black Speech ought to be.